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Understanding the Fundamentals of Instructing

Picture this: it's your first flight lesson ever. You walk into your brand new flight school, in which you've never flown their planes before, and have yet to meet anyone you know there. This is all fresh to you. Do you think your first flight lesson will be highly productive, or will produce somewhat of a challenge?

The answer is, according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, that you will not learn as much as if you felt comfortable in your new school. This is the belonging hierarchy. Once you get settled in, learn their fleet, make some friends and are known by the people there then you'll start to unconsciously progress better with each lesson.

Factors such as this are what makes up what is referred to as Fundamentals of Instructing, or FOI's. 

FOI's are important to the instructor in flight training as well as to the student because it defines concepts like human behavior & how we acquire knowledge; why we act the way we do and how we learn. 

Let's discuss some important topics of FOI's that are commonly seen as well as discussed on a flight instructor check ride:

1) Human Needs That Must Be Met to Encourage Learning

Physiological: Biological needs such as water, air, sleep and shelter. It's easier to focus and grasp something when you've eaten and are properly hydrated compared to when you're not.

Security: Feeling safe and secure in the environment around you

Belonging: Just as previously discussed, feeling wanted and including

Esteem: Have you ever heard of a lesson where your instructor refers to it as confidence building? Self confidence is important in flying

Cognitive & Aesthetic: This is connected to when we as humans like or don't like something. We'll learn more from a teacher that we like than one we don't.

Self-Actualization: I like to think of this as knowing where you're at and where you're going. Helping a student achieve their potential is an important job of a flight instructor.

2) Defense Mechanisms

Repression, Denial, Compensation, Projection, Rationalization, Reaction Formation, Fantasy, and Displacement

These are important to recognize because they're excuses (so to speak) that people use when they have a bad experience to protect their ego. One of the most common exhibited by students in flight training is reaction formation; faking a belief opposite to the true belief because it causes anxiety. For example, pretending they don't care how their lesson went after a bad day when in reality it bothers them. These can all be found in more detail in the Aviation Instructor's Handbook chapter 1.

3) Types of Practice

Skipping ahead to chapter 3, there are types of practice instructor's can use to help a student learn a skill. These are:

Deliberate: Aiming a practice at a deliberate goal, such as specifically focusing on slow fight during one lesson. The student and instructor have set a goal to accomplish something before beginning the lesson.

Blocked: This is doing the same drill until the movement becomes automatic, also known as creating a muscle memory. Blocked practice can be seen most often during landings, as the instructor has the student memorize a before landing checklist. The student configures the plane on downwind (mixture full rich, carb heat, gear down etc) then can go to the checklist to ensure they did not forget an item. 

Random: Random practice is mixing up skills, for example going out and giving the student maneuvers to perform randomly so it tests how well they understand and can perform it consistently. 

There are MANY many concepts to learn about when studying FOI's. These are just 3 that will likely be brought up by an examiner, however they will cover much much more. 

The Aviation Instructor's Handbook as well as the Flight Instructor Oral Exam Guide published by ASA are good materials to use when preparing for a CFI check ride. 

After you finish reading about FOI's, go check out some more articles full of aviation information published by Globalair.com as well as reading articles written by our 2019-2020 scholarship recipients! 

Questions are comments about FOI's? Comment below

The Aviation Spark

Nicole Lund

 

My sister, Lauren, in the pink and me in the blue.

 

The question I am asked most often is "how did you get involved in aviation?". Most student pilots have parents or relatives that are pilots who helped them get a foot in the door. However, I do not come from a family with a background in aviation. So, where did the spark to become a pilot come from?

The first time I flew on an airplane, I was four years old and on my way to the happiest place in the world, Walt Disney World. I remember boarding the plane and the captain giving me a pair of plastic pilot wings that I wore with a giant grin across my face. I was completely blown away by seeing the world from 35,000 feet. Growing up, my mom took me to a local airshow at Offutt Air Force Base. This sparked an interest in serving the country. There was a C-17 at the first Defenders of Freedom Air & Space Show that I went to. I could not fathom how a plane of that size could fly. I ended up touring the inside of the C-17 and that was when I realized that I wanted to be a pilot.

 
A photo I took of a C-17 from Travis AFB on an overnight at KOMA.
 
 

I felt embarrassed and ashamed for wanting to become a pilot. I had never met a female pilot. I did not start telling family and friends that this is what I wanted to do with my life until high school. I tried easing my family into the idea by mentioning how I wanted to join the Air Force. Then I slowly started bringing up the idea of wanting to fly. Needless to say, my family and friends thought it was just a phase. In high school, I was a 4.0 student as well as a varsity athlete in cross country, track and field, and trapshooting. I focused on my grades and extracurricular activities so that I would be competitive for an Air Force ROTC scholarship. My senior year of high school I was overjoyed by the news of receiving a Commander's Scholarship for the local detachment at the University of Nebraska Omaha (UNO). It was a full ride scholarship to study Aviation, I had my life planned out, so I thought.

My freshman year at UNO I juggled being a cadet and studying Aviation Management. At the end of my freshman year, I was crushed by the news that I had been medically disqualified from military service. That was a hard pill to swallow, but I knew I still wanted to fly. I ended up passing my first-class FAA medical and then began my private pilot training. I am now finishing up my commercial certificate with my eyes on a career in business aviation or with an airline.

Standing in front of a Citation Excel.

 

Obtaining an SIC Type Rating

Happy November everyone!

If you're like me lately, life has been super busy yet fun. And part of that busy-ness includes obtaining an SIC type rating for the first time. What needs to happen? What do you have to have? How does it differ from a regular add-on rating to your certificate?

Let's talk about it.

First things first, there is no check ride for an SIC type rating (and what a beautiful thing that is). It's a matter of meeting the training requirements and having an extra 20 minutes one day to meet with the FSDO/a DPE to do paperwork

1. Training Requirements

According to FAR Part 61.55 you have to have:

-At least a private pilot certificate with the appropriate category and class rating

-An instrument rating or privilege that applies to the aircraft being flown if the flight is under IFR

-At least a pilot type rating for the aircraft being flown unless the flight will be conducted as domestic flight operations within US airspace.

-No person may serve as a SIC of an aircraft type certificated for more than one required pilot flight crewmember or in operations requiring a second-in-command unless that person has within the previous 12 calendar months:

"Become familiar with the following information for the specific type aircraft for which second-in-command privileges are requested -

(i) Operational procedures applicable to the powerplant, equipment, and systems.

(ii) Performance specifications and limitations.

(iii) Normal, abnormal, and emergency operating procedures.

(iv) Flight manual.

(v) Placards and markings.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, performed and logged pilot time in the type of aircraft or in a flight simulator that represents the type of aircraft for which second-in-command privileges are requested, which includes -

(i) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop as the sole manipulator of the flight controls;

(ii) Engine-out procedures and maneuvering with an engine out while executing the duties of pilot-in-command; and

(iii) Crew resource management training."

That sounds like a lot, but it can be done pretty quickly.

I recently had to go through this for a CE-525 rating so I could start doing some contract flights. 99% of my flights lately have been in a CJ3 like this one listed on GlobalAir.com.

After going through this training over the course of about 2 months/4 flights, I called my local FSDO to set up an appointment to have the paperwork done.

They directed me from there to contact a DPE, whom I met with days later and had my SIC rating in hand within 20 minutes. No fee, no headache, and NO CHECK RIDE. 

Did I mention there was no check ride?!?! Best. feeling. ever.

There's also some more requirements that have to be met for the type rating, such as who can conduct the SIC training, listed in Part 61.55 as well. Make sure to read and understand them all before going up for a flight in order to avoid any issues.

2. Use of an SIC Type Rating

Before going through the training process, especially if you're paying for that flight time, ensure that the type rating will be put to use. For what purpose do you want to log SIC time? Just to build time? Meeting the requirements of a company you're flying for?

I'm sure the answer is straightforward, but it's always best to ask yourself these types of questions before jumping into something.

Other than this, SIC type ratings are pretty simple. Make sure when going through training you pay attention to the above listed items that you need to know, the more you know the safer you are!

Have any other tips for an SIC type rating you'd like to add? Feel free to comment below.

Happy Landings,

-Addi

Tips For Renting Your Aircraft

Renting your Aircraft

If you own an aircraft and are not utilizing it as much as you would like or if you would like to try and recover some of the cost of owning the aircraft, you may have thought about renting your aircraft to other pilots. As a practical matter, that makes some sense. But before you actually rent your aircraft to another pilot, here are a few things you should consider.

Aircraft Owners May Rent Their Aircraft To Third Parties

It is important to understand that the FAA does not prohibit aircraft owners from renting their aircraft. In fact, the regulations specifically contemplate rental arrangements. So, renting your aircraft is permitted, provided that you comply with applicable regulations. The FAA provides guidance on what is and isn’t a permissible rental arrangement in Advisory Circular 91-37B Truth in Leasing (although truth in leasing requirements only apply to large civil aircraft, the general lease concepts discussed in the AC apply to leasing arrangements for all aircraft).

Make Sure Your Insurance Permits Aircraft Rental

Most aircraft insurance policies will extend coverage to other pilots who fly your aircraft provided that the pilots are either expressly identified in your policy or if they have the necessary experience/qualifications to meet the “open pilot” clause of the policy. However, if you are going to charge the pilot for use of your aircraft, you need to confirm that your policy allows you to rent or lease your aircraft to a third-party. Most aircraft policies issued to owners for personal/business flying do allow aircraft leasing, but it is important to confirm this with your insurance underwriter.

Also, rather than paying to obtain their own insurance policy or renter’s insurance to cover their use of your aircraft, most renter pilots will want to be named as an additional insured under your policy as this can oftentimes be done at no cost to you or the renter pilot. In that case, renters will typically ask for a certificate of insurance that reflects not only that they are added to your policy, but that they are covered for their operation and use of their aircraft. This is important because it doesn’t do the renter pilot any good if he or she is added to the owner’s policy but only covered for the owner’s operation of the aircraft, rather than his or her own use.

Renting Your Aircraft Can Trigger Tax Consequences

In most states, when an aircraft owner rents an aircraft to a third-party the owner is required to collect and remit sales tax on the rent paid by the third-party for the aircraft. If you are in one of those states, in order to rent your aircraft you will need to obtain a sales tax number so you can collect and remit sales tax to the taxing authority. This is the aircraft owner’s obligation and the taxing authority will hold the aircraft owner responsible for any sales tax the taxing authority believes the aircraft owner should have collected and remitted, regardless of whether the renter pilot actually paid the sales tax to the aircraft owner.

Also, when you rent your aircraft many taxing authorities view that activity as commercial activity which then means your aircraft could be subject to assessment of personal property tax on the value of the aircraft, or some portion of the value based upon the pro-rata rental versus personal use of the aircraft. Although not all states assess personal property tax on aircraft, if you are in a state that does you will want to determine your potential property tax exposure before you decide to rent your aircraft.

Conclusion

Although you will also have other things to consider as you decide whether to rent your aircraft to other pilots, these three issues should be near the top of your list. And if you understand and address these issues up front that will help ensure a successful aircraft rental experience for both you, the aircraft owner, and your renter pilot.

Understanding Spins and How to Properly Recover From Them

So, as promised, I did spin training within the last 2 weeks and got my endorsement. October 3rd to be precise, and it was an absolute blast.

Pictured above is my instructor and I in the Decathlon (excuse my chipmunk cheeks, courtesy of my DC headset pushing on them).

I learned a lot more once I actually went through the ground and flight training with him than I had thought I would. So, let's talk about some concepts that can be overlooked but are still important:

1) In the last post about spin training I wrote about PARE; 

Power idle

Ailerons neutral

Rudder full opposite the direction of the turn

Elevator briskly down

That's pretty much the general knowledge that everyone knows, not much else. Well, what about after the spin is broken? Do you just keep holding in those controls? No.

After applying rudder, you hold it in the opposite direction of the turn. This is what breaks the spin itself. Taking away power and ailerons is only to stay away from aggravating the spin, but those steps won't break it. After breaking the spin, meaning you've stop the turn in that direction, neutralize the rudder. If you don't you'll start a spin in the other direction. Because remember, you're still stalled

As you see the plane breaking out of the spin, then apply your elevator down. Most people think you do all 4 steps at once, but there's a precise time to do each one. Applying the elevator down will then break the stall (if you remember basic stall characteristics, this is reducing the angle of attack). Now smoothly apply your power back in to gain altitude (as you lose it very quickly in a spin) and smoothly bring the nose back up just above to horizon to start climbing.

So, to recap:

After inducing a spin you-

Power idle

Ailerons neutral

Rudder full opposite and hold it until the spin breaks

Elevator down as the spin breaks to then break the stall

Neutralize rudder after breaking spin to stop turn in other direction

Smoothly apply power and bring the nose back up to just above the horizon and start a gentle climb.

Remember that in a real situation to stay calm and remember these procedures, don't panic and try to turn the ailerons or yank the nose up. Follow these steps then be smooth in your recovery so you don't stress out the plane too much. Flying with structural damage would be a whole different ballgame. 

2) Entry into a spin. I feel like that needs to be talked about more! What are the signs you're about to enter a spin? Does it immediately start spiraling to the ground?

To help show what it looks like here's the video I took: https://www.instagram.com/p/B3LQjLpgazG/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link 

I hate to include a link to Instagram but it's the easiest way to share a video!

If you watch it, you'll notice it actually takes some work to induce a spin. First, both wings of the plane have to be stalled. In most spin training flights instructors us a cross-control stall to induce this because it's an easy way to bring it the lack of coordination.

So, you bring the nose up and exceed the critical angle of attack. In a demonstration, you're keeping this coordinated until you're about to induce the actual stall. Then you step on rudder in either direction (the direction you want to spin in) and keep it uncoordinated (ball out of center on your turn coordinator) until the plane buffets and a wing drops. Now, after the wing drops the plane does not immediately enter a crazy death-defying spin to the ground. It's actually a somewhat slow process.

Here, you still have time to react. There are 4 phases of a spin: entry, incipient, developed and recovery. Right here you're in the incipient phase. You've already induced a stall and applied too little/too much rudder. Now as the wing falls it has to have 2-3 turns before it's a fully developed spin. These are somewhat slow turns, when you're in the plane these feel slower than the ones when the plane is in stabilized autorotation. This can also be noted in the video.

These are all some concepts that should be noted for spin training and spin avoidance/recovery. Even if you're not going for a CFI certificate, I recommend to everyone taking at least one spin training course. We, as pilots, make errors. We're not perfect, but we can learn how to counteract our mistakes. 

Not to mention, it's super fun. 

While you may not go do spin training this weekend, you should go do something fun. Check out our calendar and see if there's any fun events going on near you, as I know this weekend we'll be having Wings Over Houston with us at Ellington! 

Happy Landings from all of us at Globalair.com,

-Addi

 

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