Welcome to GlobalAir.com | 888-236-4309    Please Register or Login
Aviation Articles
Home Aircraft For Sale  | Aviation Directory  |  Airport Resource  |   Blog  | My Flight Department
Aviation Articles

Do You Have To Accept A Clearance If It Will Result In You Violating The Regulations?

by Greg Reigel 31. May 2014 18:08
Share on Facebook

This situation was presented to the FAA's Office of Chief Counsel in a request for a legal interpretation. Specifically, an individual requested an interpretation of the phrase "necessary for takeoff or landing" as used in 14 C.F.R. § 135.183(b). Apparently the individual operated single-engine Cessna Caravan aircraft in Part 135 operations between the Bahamas and Fort Lauderdale, Florida, along the FAA's published DEKAL TWO arrival route. When the flight reached the DEKAL fix, 30 miles from shore, air traffic control (ATC) usually instructed the flight to descend to 4,000 feet to separate turboprop traffic from jet traffic.

In response, the Office of Chief Counsel issued a Legal Interpretation which initially observed that Section 135.183 prohibits a single engine aircraft, when carrying passengers, from operating over water unless the aircraft is within power-off gliding distance from land, or when it is necessary for take off or landing. It also noted that to determine whether an altitude is "necessary for takeoff or landing" you have to look at "whether that portion of the flight is necessary to permit the pilot to transition between the surface and the en route or pattern altitude in connection with a takeoff or landing."

Applying the facts it was provided, the FAA explained that descent to 4,000 feet at the DEKAL fix would not be necessary for landing because the altitude was assigned for traffic separation, and the Caravan's performance would not require it to be at the assigned altitude for approach into the destination airport. In response to the individual's concern regarding compliance with 14 C.F.R. § 91.123 (requiring compliance with ATC clearances and instructions), the Interpretation cited Chapter 4-4-1(a) of the Aeronautical Information Manual for the proposition that "an ATC clearance 'is not authorization for a pilot to deviate from any rule, regulation, or minimum altitude.'"

It then concluded that, rather than accepting a clearance that would put the Caravan beyond power-off glide distance from shore, and violate Section 135.183, "the operator would be required to select another route or request a different clearance in order to maintain an altitude that keeps the aircraft within power off glide distance from shore."

This Interpretation is a good reminder that the pilot is ultimately responsible for compliance with the regulations applicable to his or her flight. Yes, you need to comply with ATC instructions to avoid violating Section 91.123. However, if ATC's instructions would result in violation(s) of the regulation(s), the pilot has a duty to reject those instructions. Not an easy decision, I know. Hopefully you won't find yourself in that position.

Tags: , ,

Greg Reigel

Aircraft Spins 101

by Sarina Houston 30. May 2014 22:31
Share on Facebook

Photo: H. Rabb/Wikimedia
As mentioned in my previous article on stalls, accidents that occur due to stall/spin scenarios are more fatal than others. According to an AOPA study, stall/spin accidents have a fatality rate of about 28 percent, higher than the overall average fatality rate of 20 percent.

A spin occurs when an airplane stalls in an uncoordinated or aggravated state. If a recovery is not initiated after an uncoordinated stall occurs, the wing that is more stalled than the other will drop and the nose will follow into a spiraling descent. The aircraft will descend rapidly in a corkscrew motion.

According to the Jeppesen Private Pilot Manual, a small airplane will descend about 500 feet for each turn in a spin, so there's not much altitude or time available for a recovery in many cases. Considering stalls and spins often occur at low altitudes to begin with, it's clear why the fatality rate is higher for these accidents.

Stages of a Spin
The FAA has outlined three stages for spins in light aircraft: incipient, fully developed and recovery.

  • Incipient: The incipient phase of a spin is the stall and spin entry, up to about 2 turns in the spin.
  • Fully Developed: When the airspeed and rotation stabilize, the spin is considered fully developed.
  • Recovery: Recovery occurs when the pilot applies rudder and aileron inputs to counter the spin and the aircraft regains lift and control function. Once the inputs are initiated to stop the spin, the aircraft can usually recover in less than one spin.

Types of Spin

  • Erect Spin: Erect spins are the most common type of spin, occurring when the aircraft rolls and yaws in the same direction and the aircraft is upright and in a slightly nose-down attitude.
  • Inverted Spin: An inverted spin occurs when the aircraft spins upside down and yaw and roll occurs in opposite directions.
  • Flat Spin: Getting its name from the flat-like pitch attitude, the flat spin occurs when the aircraft spins at a level pitch attitude around the vertical axis as a result of a yawing motion alone. Flat spins are the most difficult to recover from (and just as difficult to enter in some aircraft!)

 

Spin Recovery
Spin recovery should be initiated at the first sign of a spin. Recovery procedures are specific to the aircraft flown and are found in the pilot operating handbook of each aircraft. In light aircraft, the spin recovery procedures follow a typical pattern and can be remembered by the common acronym PARE.

P - Power: The throttle should be moved to the idle position to reduce thrust.
A - Ailerons: Ailerons should be neutralized.
R - Rudder : Full opposite rudder input should be applied until the rotation is stopped. If the aircraft is rotating to the left, right rudder should be applied. Once the spinning stops, the rudder should be neutralized.
E - Elevator: Quick forward pressure should be applied to break the stall and gain airflow over the wings. Once the aircraft gains lift, back pressure should be applied gradually so as not to stall again.

Training aircraft are stable by design. They're meant to recover from unusual attitudes without much external control input from the pilot. A Cessna 172, for example, is actually somewhat difficult to perform an intentional spin in. But this doesn't mean that pilots of training aircraft are immune to spins.

While intentional spins are not always demonstrated during training, stall and spin awareness should always be emphasized with flight students. Many pilots tend to become confident in stall recovery, but all pilots would be wise to remain familiar with spin entry characteristics and recovery procedures for their specific aircraft.

Tags: , , ,

Aircraft Accidents | Flying | Sarina Houston

Air Racing is not only for the Boys

by Tori Williams 30. May 2014 15:20
Share on Facebook

The official route of the 2014 Air Race Classic shown in Max-Trax -yellow flags indicate nearby airports with the lowest fuel prices.

Now that I am a licensed pilot (passed my checkride on the 12th of May!) it’s time to start moving towards the next step in my aviation career. I’m beginning my instrument training at a flight university this fall, but I have big plans besides that. One dream that I have had for years is to race in the all-female air derby, the Air Race Classic. Seeing as this year’s race kicks off on the 16th, this seems like the perfect time to share information about this great competition.

Between the 16th and the 19th of this month, 52 teams of female aviators will take flight to compete in one of the most thrilling and fun events in general aviation. Competitors from all over the world come together and race during this event that is enjoyable for ladies at all levels of flight experience. Since the first female Powder Puff Derby in 1929, the 3 day flying marathon has enticed thousands to participate. This year teams will fly a route that goes from Concord, California to New Cumberland, Pennsylvania.

The rich history of this event is too much for one blog post, but it is important to note the social impact caused by the creation of the race. Participants in the first race included Amelia Earhart, Louise Thaden, and Thea Rasche, amongst other legendary aviatrixes. The social stigma against female pilots slowly dissolved with every race thereafter. Despite several complications with aircraft, and the unfortunate death of one of the racers, the first race paved the way for future female air racers.

It is inspiring to think about all the hard work and preparation the pilots must go through. Months of planning lead up to 3 packed days of racing and competition. The honor of racing is perhaps one of the most sought after achievements for the modern female pilot. Many teams need a little help covering the cost of the race, and will acquire sponsors from local businesses or organizations. A favorite means of fundraising is hosting an airplane wash, or to post logos of their sponsors on the racing airplane itself.

This race is not simply a competition of “who gets there first.” Each aircraft is given a certain handicap groundspeed that it is rated at, and racers must exceed this speed in order to gain a higher ranking. They must take advantage of weather, thermals, altitudes, and essentially fly the “perfect cross-country” in order to win. In theory, the last person to arrive at the finish line could be the winner.

I know several ladies from my local chapter of the Ninety-Nines who have raced in the past. They recall it fondly, and greatly encourage me to continue pursuing my dream of being a racer. I know that one day I will, but for now I am looking forward to hearing about this year's winners!

Tags: , ,

Tori Williams

Having an AMT on Staff makes Financial Sense

by David Wyndham 29. May 2014 14:19
Share on Facebook

Having an Aviation Maintenance Technician (AMT) on staff can be invaluable to a business aviation flight department. Some operators will whole-heartedly agree with this, and others may not be so sure. Lets take a look at the numbers.


Reduction in unscheduled maintenance. Prior to trips, the AMT can perform a more thorough pre-flight than the pilot can do. When the aircraft is not flying, the AMT will be doing minor tasks and cleanup items versus waiting to have them done during a scheduled check. A little TLC can help keep an aircraft reliable.

Higher rates of dispatch reliability. The response time of an in-house AMT is immediate. A flat tire or burned-out landing light can delay a trip by many hours when waiting for the local FBO to send someone over to look at the plane. Plus, they may not have the tire or bulb needed.

What is the cost of a delayed or missed trip? It isn't easy finding a last minute charter. A minimum delay needed to find, book and have a charter aircraft on hand may be four to eight hours, if you are lucky. If there are three senior executives cooling their heels in the pilot lounge, how much is their time worth? If they have a combined salary of $1 million, their worth to to corporation can be 5-10 times that. So $5 million annually could be costing you $2,500 per hour in waiting time for those executives! A four-hour delay can cost $10,000 in lost productivity of the passengers.

The cost of the charter itself is not inconsequential. Assuming $3,500 per hour for a mid-size business jet, and an 8-hour round trip, the charter cost is $28,000. You avoid the operating cost of your own aircraft. Accounting for that variable cost, assuming $2,000 per hour, still results in an increased cost for the trip of an added $12,000 (more if an overnight and waiting times are needed).

What if the trip is cancelled? What if the cancelled trip results in a delayed opening of a new factory, or a lost opportunity to land new business? There is no way to easily calculate this lost opportunity cost, but it can be huge. It was important enough to have an aircraft and schedule the trip.

It isn't too hard to see a single lost or significantly delayed trip can easily cost a company $100,000 or more. One trip saved by your in-house AMT can be the break-even point!

Other areas the AMT is well worth having around is in the ability to save money on scheduled maintenance. Turbine aircraft maintenance facilities charge around $85 to $125 per hour shop labor. The AMT typically has the tools and facilities to do much of the minor, routine checks. If that capability is outsourced to a facility an hours' flight time away, the travel time and costs are higher.

When major maintenance is being performed, the AMT can monitor the progress of the tasks and represent the aircraft owner. This "babysitting" of the aircraft can result in an on-time, on-budget completion of the maintenance task. A great service center will make every effort to get the job done right, and having your AMT on hand will enable them to do just that.

Lastly, a good AMT knows his or her aircraft better than anybody else. I've seen maintenance manuals with pages of handwritten notes in them. Those notes represent the knowledge of your AMT with respect to your aircraft and are much more valuable than the manuals themselves.

If your flight department has more than two aircraft, the decision to hire an AMT is an easy one. Even for a small, turbine flight department, the AMT can make sense from both a financial and effectiveness perspective. When considering hiring an AMT, look at the benefits and you will likely agree the cost is worthwhile. 

Tags:

Aviation Technology | David Wyndham | Maintenance

King Air Parts Obsolescence Solutions

by GlobalAir.com 29. May 2014 12:14
Share on Facebook

Mark Wilken
Director of Avionics Sales

www.elliottaviation.com

A CRT with phosphor burn-in – common with older CRTs due to the screens only displaying non-moving images at high-intensity.

In the first article we published related to this topic, we discussed the overall concern of parts obsolescence in aviation. Due to ongoing changes in consumer electronics, avionics are highly susceptible to obsolescence. This makes many airframes vulnerable to expensive upgrades or potential grounding. However, manufactures and service centers are creating solutions and developing products to keep your airplane flying indefinitely.

The first article mentions unlike consumer electronics, airplanes are built to fly for many years. This especially holds true for the Beechcraft King Air. The King Air was first introduced in the 1960’s and continues to be assembled to this day using the same airfoil. Many of these later models King Airs are still in circulation around the world. However, many owners and operators are beginning to feel the effects of parts obsolescence.

When King Air operators face this challenge, they have two options: source out pre-owned aftermarket parts that have been removed from the same airframe, or invest in a new avionics package. Each option has pros and cons. If you decide to replace your avionics with pre-owned aftermarket parts, sourcing can be very difficult. You also run the risk of investing in a part that has an unknown part life before it too needs to be replaced.

The next option is to install a new avionics package in your King Air. The most popular retrofit for the King Air is the Garmin G1000. The G1000’s popularity stems from the high cost of maintaining current avionics, the reasonable cost of the G1000 installation and the value added back into the aircraft.

For instance, take the cost of traditional King Air avionics upgrades vs. the G1000. A traditional upgrade would include WAAS LPV at $95,000, ADS-B at $45,000, RVSM at $83,000 and five year maintenance and upkeep at $100,000 for a grand total of $323,000. With the traditional upgrade, you add no resale to your aircraft. With the G1000, your average base install is $325,000 and you add an average value increase to the aircraft of $275,000. In addition, the system is safer, lighter, more reliable, requires significantly less maintenance and the aircraft is down for only 15 working days.

Deciding which route to take can be a daunting task. At some point you will be faced with this predicament that will have you searching for additional information. Regardless of what you decide, our avionics retrofit teams and aftermarket avionics department can help your aircraft flying.

Mark Wilken joined Elliott Aviation in 1989 as an Avionics Bench Technician. He was promoted to Avionics Manager in 1996 and joined the sales team in 2003. Mark has led many highly successful avionics programs such as the King Air Garmin G1000 avionics retrofit program. He recently led efforts for Wi-Fi solutions in Hawkers, King Airs and Phenom 300’s. Mark holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Aviation Management from Southern Illinois University and is a licensed Pilot.

Elliott Aviation is a second-generation, family-owned business aviation company offering a complete menu of high quality products and services including aircraft sales, avionics service & installations, aircraft maintenance, accessory repair & overhaul, paint and interior, charter and aircraft management. Serving the business aviation industry nationally and internationally, they have facilities in Moline, IL, Des Moines, IA, and Minneapolis, MN. The company is a member of the Pinnacle Air Network, National Business Aviation Association (NBAA), National Air Transportation Association (NATA), and National Aircraft Resale Association (NARA).

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Maintenance



Archive



GlobalAir.com on Twitter