January 2015 - Page 2 Aviation Articles

Logging Safety Pilot Time

In order to operate an aircraft in simulated instrument conditions, certain requirements must be met. 14 C.F.R. § 91.109(b) allows this type of operation in an aircraft equipped with fully functioning dual controls as long as "(1) the other control seat is occupied by a safety pilot who possesses at least a private pilot certificate with category and class ratings appropriate to the aircraft being flown; and (2) the safety pilot has adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft, or a competent observer in the aircraft adequately supplements the vision of the safety pilot." Unfortunately, Section 91.109(b) doesn't address the logging of flight time in connection with operations involving a safety pilot.

In order to understand how a pilot may "log" his or her flight time, it is important to keep in mind that "acting" or "serving" as a pilot in command ("PIC") or second in command ("SIC") during a flight is different than "logging time" for that flight. 14 C.F.R. 61.51(e) states that a pilot may log PIC time when (i) the pilot is the sole manipulator of the controls of an aircraft for which the pilot is rated; (ii) when the pilot is the sole occupant in the aircraft; or (iii) when the pilot acts as pilot in command of an aircraft for which more than one pilot is required under the type certification of the aircraft or the regulations under which the flight is conducted. Section 61.51(f) states that a pilot may log SIC time only for that flight time during which that person: (1) Is qualified in accordance with the second-in-command requirements of § 61.55 of this part, and occupies a crewmember station in an aircraft that requires more than one pilot by the aircraft's type certificate; or (2) Holds the appropriate category, class, and instrument rating (if an instrument rating is required for the flight) for the aircraft being flown, and more than one pilot is required under the type certification of the aircraft or the regulations under which the flight is being conducted.

Under these regulations, it is not possible for two pilots to "act" or "serve" as PIC simultaneously during a flight. However, it is possible for two pilots to log PIC flight time simultaneously. PIC flight time may be logged by both the PIC responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight time in accordance with 14 C.F.R. § 1.1 (e.g. the pilot "acting" or "serving" as PIC), and by the pilot who acts as the sole manipulator of the controls of the aircraft for which the pilot is rated.

So, in a typical simulated instrument flight, the pilot under the hood may log PIC time for that time in which he or she is the sole manipulator of the controls of the aircraft, provided that he or she is rated for that aircraft. The safety pilot may concurrently log as SIC time that time during which he or she is "acting" or "serving" as safety pilot (e.g. when the other pilot is actually under the hood) because the safety pilot is a required crewmember for operations under Section 91.109(b).

However, the two pilots may, prior to initiating the flight, agree that the safety pilot will be the PIC responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during the flight (e.g. the safety pilot will "act" or "serve" as PIC). In this situation, the safety pilot may log all the flight time as PIC time under Section 61.51(e)(iii), provided he or she is otherwise qualified to "act" or "serve" as a PIC (e.g. having a current flight review, appropriate ratings and endorsements etc.) and the pilot under the hood may log, concurrently, all of the flight time during which he or she is the sole manipulator of the controls as PIC time in accordance with Section 61.51(e)(i).

So you can see, depending upon the circumstances, a safety pilot may be able to both "act" as second in command or pilot in command and "log time" as second in command or pilot in command. In other situations, he or she may only be able to do one or the other. Although it can be tricky, airmen need to make sure they understand the distinction to ensure that they are logging their time accurately and in compliance with the regulations.

5 New Places to Fly in 2015

Looking for a new place to fly? Wondering where to spend your next vacation? Part of the joy of flying includes exploring new places while avoiding airlines and long road trips. Here are five stunning places that will remind you why you fly and double as fun vacation spots for the whole family. If you haven't been to these places, put them on your flying bucket list for 2015!

  1. First Flight Airport (KFFA), Kill Devil Hills, Outer Banks, NC
    First Flight Airport should be an airport in every aviator’s logbook. A flight to KFFA will let you experience flight as the Wright Brothers first did at Kitty Hawk in 1903. The airport itself is part of the Wright Brothers National Memorial. It’s home to the Wright Brothers Memorial, which rests high on Kill Devil Hill, the Wright Brothers Visitor’s Center, the Flight Line, where large stones commemorate the Wright Brothers’ takeoff points, and a reconstruction of their living quarters.

    But that’s not all. There are plenty of things to do in the Outer Banks, so plan on grabbing a hotel or beach house and staying on the beach for a few days. The area offers a wealth of activities like golfing, fishing and hang gliding. View some of the area lighthouses or just relax and take in the sights.

    Airport Information: KFFA has a 3,000-foot asphalt runway. There are no instrument approach procedures, and it can be windy. If you need a larger runway, you’ll find a 4,305-foot runway six miles south at Dare County Regional Airport (KMQI). Stay aware of the restricted areas, MOAs and other low-flying operations like hang gliding.

    Pilot Services: AOPA has donated a pilot’s lounge that is reportedly accessible at all hours, but there is no fuel available here, so plan ahead to stop elsewhere.

  2. Sedona Airport (KSEZ), Sedona, Arizona
    Red rock country offers spectacular views and a relaxing atmosphere for a vacation. Sedona airport sits atop a gorgeous plateau of red rock, and flying in is a treat - as long as you are prepared for the potential downdrafts associated with the sharp drop-offs on approach and landing.

    There’s a nice restaurant with panoramic views at the airport and it’s a quick trip to the downtown area, where shopping and tourist attractions are plenty. Take a jeep tour across the red rocks or visit the Chapel of the Holy Cross, which is built into the side of a canyon and is an impressive architectural sight.

    Airport Information: KSEZ has a 5,132-foot runway. Look up the noise abatement procedures before you go, and expect turbulence around the airport. There’s a GPS approach to Runway 3. Its elevation is 4,736 feet, so keep density altitude in mind.

    Pilot Services: Full pilot services are available at Red Rock Aviation. The airport restaurant, Mesa Grill Sedona, is fantastic.

  3. McCall Municipal Airport (KMYL), McCall, Idaho
    McCall is a great airport to visit year-round. If you’re looking for a great ski resort, check out Brundage Mountain Resort, which has 46 trails on 1500 acres. In the summer, the area around McCall offers amazing hiking, camping, fishing and river rafting opportunities. For a quiet, peaceful vacation away from it all, McCall is the place to be.

    Airport Information: McCall’s runway is 6,108 feet. It sits at 5,000+ feet, so keep density altitude in mind. The area gets a lot of snow in the winter, and KMYL is only attended during the day, so night approaches during the winter can be tricky. There are RNAV(GPS) approaches to either runway.

    Pilot Services: 100LL and JetA are available at McCall Aviation, along with a variety of additional pilot services. Hangar space, preheating and de-icing services are available.

  4. Nantucket Memorial Airport (KACK), Nantucket Island, MA
    Nantucket Island has it all: Beaches, whale watching, lighthouses, shopping and restaurants. From the airport, rent a car or a bicycle and explore the island. It’s a great place to take the family for a few relaxing days in the heat of the summer.

    Airport Information: KACK has three runways, with the longest being 6,303 feet. There are multiple approaches available, including an ILS on Runway 06/24. There are noise abatement procedures in place. It can get foggy here, so expects delays. And don’t forget that you may need floatation devices on board for this trip!

    Pilot Services: A full service FBO is located adjacent to the terminal. It’s recommended that large aircraft call ahead to make arrangements. Bring your own tie-down rope and look up the landing fees in advance.

  5. Mackinac Island Airport (KMCD), Mackinac Island, MI
    History buffs will love Mackinac Island. Pronounced "Mack-in-naw," the island separates the lower and upper peninsulas in northern Michigan, and is a great place for a day trip in the airplane. Cars are not allowed on the island, which keeps things peaceful. Hike, bike or take a horse-drawn carriage around the island and see historic sights, caves, springs, rock formations and wildlife. Check out Fort Mackinac, which was constructed by the British during the War of 1812.

    Airport Information: KMCD has a 3,501-foot lighted runway. There’s an RNAV(GPS) approach to runway 08/26 and a VOR/DME-A approach. No touch-and-goes are allowed here. If you need a longer runway, or are getting a hotel for a few days, try Pellston Regional Airport (KPLN), which has a 6,500-foot runway and more pilot services.

    Pilot Services: Call ahead for the landing fee. Tie downs are available, but no fuel or maintenance services are available. If you’re going for longer than a day, you’ll want to fly into KPLN for full pilot services.

Are you planning to fly somewhere new in 2015? Share your airport ideas with us in the comments!

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