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General Aviation Around the World

by Tori Williams 31. December 2015 23:46
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During my trip to Munich, Germany for the International Ninety-Nines Conference over the summer I was able to meet female pilots from all over the world. I met women from Russia, New Zealand, Canada, China, and Jordan to name a few. All of these accomplished women had similar goals and dreams in the world of general and commercial aviation.

One of the excursions available during the tip was to fly around the Alps in Bavaria. The day that it was offered I ended up being on a tour of Neuschswanstein Castle, but I found it fascinating that in Germany you have the ability to hop in a small airplane and go flying, just like America. This led me to an interest in how the process of earning your license differs between countries. The FAA doesn’t control air traffic outside of America, so who is in charge in other parts of the world? Is it more difficult to become licensed there? I did some research into the regulations of 5 countries and will share what I found here.

1. The United States

To earn your private pilot license in America you have to obtain a student pilot certificate and third class medical, which are often the same document. An informal pre-solo written exam, which you cover with your instructor, is all that is additionally required to solo. You must then pass an FAA written exam that consists of 60 questions, and earn a minimum of 40 flight hours in accordance to the requirements in 14 CFR 61.109(a) for different types of aeronautical experience. After all this training you must take a “check-ride” with an FAA-certified examiner based on a document called the Practical Test Standards. Student pilots in America can solo at age 16 and earn their full license at age 17.

2. Canada

Canada has similar requirements for private pilots. However, in order to earn your student pilot certificate to solo you must sit and pass a PSTAR examination. This is a multiple-choice test with 50 questions covering most areas in the FAA written exam, with the exception of it being over the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

3. Germany

Pilots seeking their private license in Germany have a few more hoops to jump through than other countries. Candidates must have a certificate of having taken a first aid course of immediate life saving measures, as well as a Radio Telephony Certificate. The “check-ride” process appears to be similar to the U.S, with a multiple-choice test and practical flight with a designated examiner. More information can be found here.

4. Japan

Based on what information I could find online, Japan is one of the most expensive places to earn your pilot license. With rates estimated around $500 an hour, most aspiring pilots will travel abroad to a less expensive country for their training. They also have a ranked medical certificate process, and a “B” Aviation Medical Certificate is required to a private license. Most airports have a strict curfew, so pilots in Japan have to be especially careful to not fly into these airports after-hours.

5. New Zealand

Famous for its beautiful scenery and the Lord of the Rings movies, New Zealand is one of the most popular countries for pilots from other parts of the world to visit and fly at. The rolling hills and striking landscapes make for an extremely general aviation flight. As far as I can tell, the licensing process is very similar to the U.S. The major difference is that you have six examinations over subjects relating to New Zealand aviation. These subjects are radio, human factors, meteorology, air technical knowledge, navigation and law. These exams are mainly multiple choice and require a 70% pass rate.

English is the universal language of aviation, and I was surprised to find that the regulations regarding earning your first license are pretty standard around the world. Despite a few small changes, the typical process has most of the same steps. The most dramatic difference is the availability of aircraft to rent.

In the future I would like to research more heavily into the history and current climate of general aviation in different countries. It is an interesting topic, especially when contrasting it with our rules in America. We really have it easy when compared to other countries as far as aircraft availability and the sheer amount of airports we have across the country.

Looking for an international flight school? We have a list of them available on our GlobalAir.com Aviation Directory.

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Aviation Safety | Flying | Tori Williams

Will You Pay More in the End?

by GlobalAir.com 28. December 2015 17:03
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By Adam Doyle – Paint and Interior Sales Manager
Elliott Aviation

Customers should shop around for the best deals, best customer service, and best quality of work. Sometimes when a customer has a particular need, they try to look for the specialty shop that does just that one thing instead of a shop were they execute more than one discipline. On certain products that may work, although when it comes to repainting an aircraft or getting an updated look to the interior, customers may see these people as experts since they focus solely on one discipline; the inverse, in fact, is true. Let’s take a look at some situations that would call for a one-stop shop compared to a single trade shop.

Elliott Paint PAINT

A quality paint job should last at least six years but can sometimes last longer. We recommend that customers look at paint as a maintenance event. Even if you don’t think you need new paint in six years, you should seriously consider it because paint is the first line of defense and you never know if there is corrosion underneath until you strip the paint completely. We have all heard stories about paint shops where it’s one guy and a paint gun on unfinished floors, not to mention zero controlled atmospheric conditions and absolutely no dedication to quality procedures. This example may be extreme, but there are qualities to look for in a paint shop while there are others you will want to avoid.

You want a facility that is adequately staffed to address an issue if something goes awry in the process. Items like flight controls and other critical elements to an aircraft, for example, can follow strict guidelines that may require maintenance manuals. If the shop where you take your aircraft does not have the manuals because they don’t generally deal with this type of aircraft, this could compromise the customer’s service. Paint that has been on an aircraft for years may be hiding some issues and, once you strip it, there is no going back and those issues must be dealt with.

When searching for a paint facility, look for one that will provide quality work and technicians who will pay attention to the details so that the aircraft is safe and will have a paint job that will withstand the years. Paying a little more now for a quality paint job that will last for many years, will, in the long run, save money because there wouldn’t be further downtime or paying for paint again in just a couple of years. Find a facility with a clean booth because even a speck of dusk landing in the paint can cause problems. As we stated, paint is the first line of defense and, when flying and changing altitudes, pressures and climate conditions at 500 miles an hour, the paint should hold up and not have any reason to crack.

If the aircraft is within a warranty period and the scope of work failed, understanding when and where the aircraft will be repaired along with verification of the warranty and knowing who exactly will be paying for it can be a cause of concern. Look for companies who will provide that information in the original contract. In some circumstances, a company that wants a satisfied customer who will return when work is needed will most likely make exceptions and see that the issues are resolved in a timely manner. If these paint and interior only shops do not have the adequate equipment and manpower or even the proper manuals for the specific airframe, it may potentially cost more downtime and more money out of pocket.

Quality takes time and a good facility is likely to be booked weeks in advance, which means it will be extremely difficult to take drop-ins. Planning ahead is the best option when needing quality work done.

INTERIOR

A quality shop understands it is more than just finishing and moving on to the next project. It is about knowing the product and its limitations. For example, how a part is prepped can make all the difference. Does the panel need to hold its flexibility or can we repair it to be more rigid? Is there a certain way to seam a panel or a seat to extend the wear and longevity of the panel or seat? That is precisely what a customer should look for in a shop: some place that is going to take the time to look at each section of the interior and determine how to make it last longer to increase the value they are putting into the aircraft.

When prep work is not done properly, the materials will not wear as well as they should. If you are unsure about the origin of the work or the quality a particular shop provides, beware of an aircraft advertised with “new interior.” Some shops just re-dye seats and use pre-cut carpet kits that may not fit well and show loose surging/threads, possibly unfinished edges and those solutions won’t hold up as well. It will have the new carpet and new leather smell but time will tell how long either will stand. Some shops take shortcuts; for instance when seats are re-dyed and not done properly, they can become sticky and even pull layers of dye off when conditions are right.

While refurbishing an aircraft, a quality facility should have the solutions to every detail, no matter how small. For instance, if doing partial refurbishment, will all the hardware match? Will they make sure there is a full set of throw rugs? Will the shop go above and beyond to create an excellent customer experience? Even the smallest of things will go a long way.

It may seem complicated but we have said this time and time again when doing an interior refurbishment; even a small change to an aircraft interior can affect a lot more than you think. Find a shop that focuses on the smallest of details, one that takes the time to really look at an aircraft to figure out what is best for that specific aircraft and airframe.

Having a facility that can handle any issues that arise, mechanical or otherwise is critical when repainting or refurbishing an aircraft. A shop with one trade may not be capable to handling issues that arise that aren’t in their field. Also keep in mind a facility that can do everything will have adequate “specialists” already on hand for each specific situation. Quality work that will lasts over time will pay for itself in the long run.

Adam Doyle joined Elliott Aviation in 2000 as an interior technician after graduating from Wyoming Technical Institute. While at Elliott Aviation, Adam has earned many different promotions on the shop floor including Install Team Lead, Soft Goods Team Lead, Assistant Interior Shop Manager and Seat Shop Manager. Adam’s most recent promotion has been to Paint and Interior Sales Representative for Elliott Aviation. He uses his experience with various vendors, products and processes to educate our clients by providing direction and helping plan for future investment with realistic and accurate figures.

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Aviation Technology | Maintenance

D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals Grounds Flytenow & AirPooler Private Pilot Flight-Sharing Concept

by Greg Reigel 22. December 2015 15:51
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As you may know, one of the ways a private pilot is permitted to reduce the cost of a particular flight is to share that expense with the passenger(s) on the flight. The applicable regulation, 14 CFR 61.113(a), provides that "no person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as pilot in command of an aircraft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire; nor may that person, for compensation or hire, act as pilot in command of an aircraft." However, Paragraph (c) of the regulation states "[a] private pilot may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating expenses of a flight with passengers, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees." This creates an exception to the prohibition on private pilots receiving compensation for flying.

Using this exception, and presumably with the Uber and Airbnb ride sharing concepts in mind, two companies, Flytenow and AirPooler, created websites that would allow a private pilot to offer his or her planned flight to potential passengers who would be willing to share the expenses of the flight under Section 61.113(c). However, before the concepts really took flight, both AirPooler and Flytenow requested legal interpretations from the FAA regarding whether their business concept was in compliance with federal aviation regulations. The FAA responded to both requests with a resounding “no.”

The FAA concluded that a private pilot using a web-based service to offer flights to potential passengers would be holding himself or herself out as a common carrier to transport persons from place to place for compensation. The regulations prohibit that type of operation by a private pilot. Rather, under the proposed scenario the FAA stated that the pilot would need to have both a commercial pilot certificate and also an air carrier certificate. The FAA’s decision relied upon the FAA’s previous interpretations of the terms “compensation” and “holding out” as they are used in the regulations.

Flytenow disagreed with the FAA’s interpretations and its application of both the definitions of “compensation” and “holding out” as they applied to its business model. It then filed a petition asking the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals to set aside the FAA’s legal interpretations. In a not-so-surprising decision, the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals in Flytenow, Inc. v. Federal Aviation Administration rejected Flytenow’s petition in its entirety and confirmed the FAA’s interpretations.

First, the court confirmed that a private pilot’s receipt of any reimbursement of expenses is compensation. Thus, given the FAA’s broad view of “compensation,” a private pilot’s receipt of a pro-rata share of a flight’s expenses from passengers would be compensation, albeit permitted compensation under Section 61.113(c).

Next, the court had no trouble determining that private pilots using the Flytenow website to offer flights would be “holding out” as the FAA interpreted that term. The court observed that any potential passenger could arrange for a flight by simply using Flytenow’s website. And although use of the website was limited to members, in order to become a member a potential passenger merely needed to sign up. Further, the court did not think that a member pilot’s authority to decide not to accept particular passengers limited the “holding out” by that pilot. Thus, the court agreed with the FAA’s position that a private pilot’s sharing of flight expenses with passengers obtained through the Flytenow website would be contrary to the regulations.

However, the court went on to note that “pilots communicating to defined and limited groups remain free to invite passengers for common purpose expense-sharing flights.” It confirmed a previous opinion by the FAA that a private pilot’s posting of a flight on a bulletin board may be permitted in certain circumstances. The court also stated that “[o]ther kinds of internet-based communications, such as e-mail among friends, for example, seem unlikely to be deemed ‘holding out’ under the FAA’s Interpretation.” Finally, perhaps in fear that its decision would be misinterpreted, the court concluded by stating “[p]rivate pilots continue to enjoy the right to share expenses with their passengers, so long as they share a common purpose and do not hold themselves out as offering services to the public.”

So, what does this mean? Well, for starters, it means that offering flights through a broadly based flight-sharing system or website open to anyone (e.g. John Q. Public) is likely going to be interpreted as “holding out.” However, the court’s language does suggest that making flight-sharing available to a more limited or defined pool of potential passengers may not be considered “holding out.”

Unfortunately, the court did not provide any further guidance on where the “holding out” threshold would be crossed. Somewhere between “communications between friends” and “communications to the public at large” is neither specific, nor is it helpful. Finding the sweet-spot where the pool of potential passengers is large enough to justify the business model for flight-sharing, yet still small enough that it is not “holding out,” may be difficult. But for those who may want to pursue or revisit this type of flight-sharing arrangement, it is better than a complete ban.

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Greg Reigel

12 Things to Know About Cold Weather Start Procedures in GA Aircraft

by Sarina Houston 21. December 2015 23:32
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It’s cold out there. Winter days are often the best flying days, but it can be a pain to get your airplane started when it’s freezing outside. In addition, starting a cold-soaked engine can cause excessive engine damage in just the first minutes after engine start - damage that may not be evident initially but will significantly decrease your engine life. Preheating your aircraft engine will save you a lot of money on engine maintenance, as well as battery and starter wear and tear. Here are a few facts about cold weather operations in small general aviation aircraft:

  1. It’s not (just) about cold oil. According to this avweb.com article, cold oil isn’t really the main problem at all, at least not until the temperature gets below -18 degrees Celsius. While cold oil is more viscous than warm oil, the more important problem is the expansion and contraction of the engine’s different types of metal. Aircraft engines include many different types of metals - aluminum, steel, etc. - with different expansion coefficients. When heated or cooled, aluminum expands or contracts quicker than steel, so when the aluminum crankcase contracts more easily than the steel crankshaft (like in cold temperatures), you have little or no clearance between the two, causing metal-on-metal grinding, which isn't good.

  2. When not fully charged to begin with, a cold battery can mean a weak start, causing a pilot to crank on the starter more than he should in an attempt to start the engine. In a less-than-fully-charged battery, the chemical reaction is slowed when the temperature is cold which causes it to perform as if it has a lesser charge. This makes it more difficult to start an airplane that has a cold battery, and the continued cranking will be tough on the starter. Warming up the battery can reduce the demand on the battery and on the starter.

  3. Starting a cold engine can give it the equivalent of 500 hours of cruise wear and tear, according to this article on planeandpilot.com.

  4. Lycoming states that preheating your aircraft engine is required when the engine temperature is below +10°F/-12°C.

  5. Continental advises that preheating be done whenever the engine has been exposed to temperatures at or below 20° Fahrenheit for two hours or more.

  6. Lycoming also advises opening the cowl flaps, if necessary, during the preheating process, in order to reduce damage to nonmetal parts like hoses and wires.

  7. Preheating in increments of 5-10 minutes is best, in order to heat slowly and prevent overheating of nonmetal parts.

  8. When it comes times to start the engine, if it’s a carbureted engine, prime only when you’re ready to engage the starter. Allowing too much time to pass between priming and engaging the starter, or over-priming, can cause fuel from the primer to pool at the bottom of the carb heat box, presenting a fire hazard.

  9. After start, keep the engine at idle while the oil temperature and pressure increase to their normal operating ranges. Surges or fluctuations in engine RPM are an indication that the engine is still too cold and takeoff should not be attempted.

  10. Engines can be preheated with installed electrical heaters or forced air heaters, or by leaving the aircraft inside of a heated hangar for hours before the flight.

  11. When using a forced air preheating system, Continental suggests that you should direct preheated air directly to the oil sump, oil filter, external oil lines, oil cooler, coolant radiator and cylinder assemblies for a minimum of 30 minutes

  12. According to Continental, “Attempting to start your engine with a partially discharged aircraft battery may result in damage to the starter relay, possible engine kick-back resulting in a broken starter adapter clutch spring.”

Drone Registration: Just In Time For The Holidays?

by Greg Reigel 3. December 2015 11:37
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As you may know, the FAA is working on regulations that will govern the operation of unmanned aircraft systems ("UAS"), more commonly and colloquially referred to as "drones."  Unfortunately, it doesn't look like the FAA will have a final drone regulation ready until next year, at the earliest.

With the concern that thousands of drones will be flying off the shelves this Christmas, the concern and, in some circles panic, has gotten the FAA's attention. Despite its efforts to educate the public regarding drone do's and do not's, the FAA came to the conclusion that registration of drones would be a good idea. Why, you might ask? Well, first, since the FAA considers drones to be aircraft, and under 49 U.S.C. 44101(a) a person may only operate an aircraft in the National Air Space ("NAS") if it is registered with the FAA's aircraft registration branch. Additionally, and perhaps more in response to the anticipated post-holiday proliferation of drones, the FAA feels drone registration will "promote a culture of accountability while achieving a maximum level of compliance."

So, what did the FAA do? It formed a Task Force to develop recommendations for the creation of a drone registration process which the FAA would ultimately use to promulgate drone registration rules. The Task Force was comprised of a number of individuals from a variety of groups and organizations representing both aviation and non-aviation perspectives on drones. After meeting several times, on November 21, 2015 the Task Force issued recommendations to the FAA addressing (1) minimum requirements for drones that would need to be registered; (2) a recommended registration process; and (3) methods for proving registration and marking of drones. Let's take a closer look at these recommendations.

Minimum Requirements
The Task Force recommended that all drones with a maximum take-off weight under 55 pounds and above 250 grams (approximately ½ a pound) and that are operated outdoors in the NAS be subject to registration. The 250 gram minimum was apparently derived from safety studies and risk probability calculations. Drones weighing in excess of 55 pounds are already subject to registration with the FAA. Thus, if you don't intend to ever operate your drone outside, you wouldn't need to register. But that would probably only apply to a very small segment of drone operators. Otherwise, most drones would be subject to registration under the Task Force's recommendation.


The Registration Process

For those drones subject to registration, the registration process recommended by the Task Force would require the drone operator to complete, at no cost to the drone operator, an electronic registration form through the web or using a yet-to-be-developed application ("App"). The drone operator would need to provide the FAA with the operator's name and street address. The Task Force suggested that an operator could also provide its mailing address, email address, telephone number, and serial number of the operator's drones, but that disclosure of this additional information should not be mandatory.

According to the recommendations, a drone operator would not need to register each individual drone, although the web-portal or App that would be used for registration would allow registration of individual drones. Rather, the Task Force has recommended that the drone registration system be owner/operator based. Thus, the drone operator would receive a single registration number that would be used with all drones that the operator wants or needs to register. (Sounds like "drone operator registration" to me, not "drone registration").

The Task Force recommended that drone operators registering drones must be at least 13 years old to register, but drone operators are not subject to the U.S. citizenship requirements that apply to registration of other aircraft with the FAA. Unfortunately, the Task Force does not address how this age-limit impacts the ability of an individual younger than 13 to operate a drone in the NAS. Since the recommendation requires registration for operation in the NAS, this raises a question as to whether individuals younger than 13 will be permitted to operate a drone in the NAS at all.

Once the drone operator completes the registration process, the drone operator would then immediately receive an electronic certificate of registration, via download, or, if the drone operator requests a paper copy or registers directly with the FAA Registry, a paper copy will be sent to the drone operator. The drone operator would also receive a personal universal registration number for use on all drones owned by that drone operator (another reason this is more like "drone operator registration"). Also, the Task Force suggests that the drone operator would have to produce the certificate of registration for inspection anytime the operator is operating a drone in the NAS, although it doesn't suggest to whom the drone operator would need to produce the certificate of registration. Presumably the FAA, law enforcement, and, perhaps, others?

Marking The Drone

Finally, the Task Force recommended that drone operators would have to place the registration number on all applicable drones before the operator could operate the drones in the NAS. Alternatively, if the drone operator provided the FAA with the serial numbers for any of the operator's drones during the registration process, the drone operator would need to ensure that the serial number was actually affixed to each drone.

The Task Force suggests that the registration or serial number marking must be readily accessible and maintained in a way so that it will be legible and readable by someone visually inspecting the drone. And the marking does not necessarily need to be on the outside of the drone. If the registration or serial number is in an enclosed compartment, such as a battery compartment, the Task Force felt that would be considered “readily accessible” so long as the compartment can be accessed without the use of tool.

Conclusions

So, those are the Task Force's recommendations regarding drone registration. Are they binding upon the FAA? No. Will they become part of the FAA's final drone registration rulemaking? Maybe. Will they be the only requirements in the FAA's rulemaking? Probably not.  The FAA is under a lot of pressure on this issue, so it is possible we will see some rulemaking before Christmas.  But for now, we will have to wait and see.  Ho, Ho, Ho.

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