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Lesson Plans from a CFI for Steep Turns

I am on a new yet exhausting journey of writing lesson plans for my CFI binder. It is very exciting to think that by the end of this year I will be able to teach other people how to fly an airplane. I have learned so much over the past 2 and a half years of flying and soon I will take that knowledge and share it with others. Someone told me once that being a CFI means that you are simply a certified learner. In the pursuit of creating lesson plans, I can say I have expanded my understanding exponentially. I mean think about it, for you to teach someone and answer the unfiltered questions and different levels of learning you have to continually learn the material for yourself to provide a deep understanding to your students.

One of my very first lesson plans is over steep turns and what better way to start sharing my newly acquired knowledge than to share it with you all? Feel free at any point to leave advice and comments to improve my lesson plan. This is not the full version as it turned out to be roughly 10 pages of material. This post will be one of a two-part series to provide that information. This first post will cover coordinated turns, uncoordinated turns, and over banking tendencies. Enjoy and let me know what you think!

Steep Turns

Purpose of Steep Turn

The purpose of this maneuver is to develop the pilot’s smoothness, coordination, orientation, control technique, and division of attention by executing maximum performance turns.

Set-up of Maneuver

CLEARING TURN

To ensure that the immediate practice area is free of conflicting air traffic and obstacles and to select an emergency landing site.

PRE-MANEUVER FLOW 

Single engine PA28-161

  1. Area Clear
  2. Fuel Selector Proper Tank
  3. Mixture Full Rich
  4. Fuel Pump On
  5. Carb Heat Off
  6. Power Set for Va, (Specific to aircraft determined Va for specific weight)

Memory Aid: GUMP

  • Gas (Fuel selector & fuel pump)
  • Under carriage (Gear up/down)
  • Mixture (Full rich/ lean)
  • Power (Va)

PA28-161 Piper Warrior III SOP (Standard Operating Procedure)

  1. Enter the maneuver on a cardinal heading at least 1,500 AGL  at Va.
  2. Execute a coordinated turn, using a 45-degree bank (50-degree bank for advanced students).
  3. As the bank angle approaches 30 degrees, simultaneously increase back elevator pressure to maintain level flight and add approximately 100 to 200 RPM as necessary to maintain entry airspeed, and apply trim to support the desired flight attitude and airspeed.
  4. Execute a steep turn in the opposite direction (advanced students must immediately execute a steep turn in the opposite direction).
  5. Begin rollout approximately one-half the bank angle in degrees before the entry heading, e.g. in a 45-degree bank, begin rollout while passing through a heading approximately 20-degrees before entry heading.
  6. Roll out of the turn at entry heading and altitude, while simultaneously relaxing back elevator pressure and reducing power to a normal cruise setting.
  7. Fuel pump off if no more maneuvers are to be practiced on that flight.

Forces in Turns
Coordinated and Uncoordinated Flight

Coordinated Flight

Centrifugal force is equal to the horizontal component of lift.

Basics of a Turn

In a turn, the lift component is broken into vertical and horizontal components.

The horizontal component of lift is a force involved with turning the aircraft to either side.

Centrifugal force is the “equal and opposite reaction” of the aircraft to the change in direction during a turn and acts equal and opposite to the horizontal component of lift.

 The vertical component of lift acts opposite to weight (gravity acting downward). “Since the lift during the bank is divided into vertical and horizontal components, the amount of lift opposing gravity and supporting the aircraft’s weight is reduced.” (PHAK Ch. 5) Consequently, more lift needs to be generated by increasing the coefficient of lift requiring back pressure on the elevator to maintain a higher A.O.A.

It is important to note that the AOA must be progressively increased to produce sufficient vertical lift to support the aircraft’s weight due to the vertical component of lift decreasing as the bank angle increases. The pilot should keep in mind that when making constant altitude turns, the vertical component of lift must be equal to the weight to maintain altitude.

Also during the turn, since the drag of the airfoil is directly proportional to its AOA, the airplane will lose airspeed proportional to the angle of bank executed. To maintain the required 45 degree (50 degrees for advanced), Va, and altitude rolling past 30 degrees added power is required to compensate added drag due to increased AOA.

 Uncoordinated Flight

Slip

Slipping Turns

The horizontal lift component is greater than the centrifugal force

  • Aircraft yaws to the outside of turn
  • Bank angle too much for the rate of turn
  • The outside wing has a higher A.O.A, stalls first, drops and levels the wings

Recovery: decrease the bank angle, increasing the Rate of Turn, or a combination of the two changes.

Note* Slips may result in inaccurate airspeed due to the pitot tube/ mass not being Skidding Turnsaligned with the relative wind.

Skid

 

An excess of centrifugal force over the horizontal lift component

  • Turning too fast for bank angle
  • Fuselage blankets lower wing, lower wing stalls, spin is created

Recovery: reduce the rate of turn, increase bank angle or a combination of the two changes.

Over banking tendencies

  • During a steep turn maneuver, the outer wing of the aircraft moves slightly faster through the air than the inner wing. This lack of symmetrical lift between both wings, causing the aircraft to steepen its bank angle in the initial direction. To counteract this over banking tendency, apply opposite aileron as necessary to maintain your bank angle.
  • Negative static stability about the longitudinal axis.

Okay, that’s just the first portion of this lesson plan. Stay tuned for my next post that will go into Va (maneuvering speed), weight impact, load factor, and accelerated stalls, and rate and radius of turns. Your critics make me a better learner therefore a better teacher so feel free to leave any thoughts!

Your 2021 Guide to Flying Into Aspen, CO

A lot of pilots will tell you flying into Aspen, Colorado (KASE) isn't really that bad. But if this is your first time going into that airport, especially if you're single pilot, it can be a little intimidating. 

The best way to stay safe going into KASE is to be prepared. Do your homework and have a plan in your head of how you'll fly the approach inbound! Have no worry, we're here to help give advice and links to the best information the internet has to offer!

1) Youtube

One of the best inventions of the 21st century, Youtube has a lot of aviation videos ranging from general aviation discussions for student pilots, accident reviews, and then how-to guides for difficult approaches such as Aspen. From researching the internet and asking pilots their opinions, I found two helpful links:

Aspen Missed Approach - that shows two pilots coming in and having to go missed on the actual approach back in 2010. They get set up early, stay ahead of the airplane, keep talking through the approach the entire time, then make a decision to go missed and head into Eagle (KEGE) which most use as their alternate. 

Aspen LOC DME-E and Visual Approach - this is more from the single pilot standpoint to show the workload and is just another good video showing what it's like setting up for everything from a Phenom 300

Coming in on the visual it's going to look like you're gliding on top of a mountain (pictured above), then it drops off and it seems like you're way too high above the airport (1st picture). As you keep following the approach in it'll transition to looking like you're too low. Trust the approach even if your visual cues disagree and continue to stay stable. 

2) Simulator

If you can get in a full motion sim before your trip this is a great idea. If you're going to training anytime soon, ask to do a trip into there. The simulator going into Aspen is very realistic, not to mention this is the safest way to make mistakes and have an instructor with you giving you all the best tips and tricks. 

In the simulator you an also adjust temperatures and other weather factors. This can give you a chance to see how performance changes and what it feels like gaining less performance from your aircraft. High density altitude, high temperature, add a tailwind in there and it makes for a "fun" day....if you can even take the runway. 

3) Familiarization Course

Something that you can heavily review before your trip or even better review in addition to your simulator training is a familiarization course. A great presentation is one published by Code 7700: ASE Familiarization Training that also includes the departure procedures. It includes pictures, approach charts, even landmarks to help you locate the airport and an arrival training video.

4) Phone a Friend

Along with reviewing these, I also took advantage of more experienced pilots and asked for their stories before flying in! Of course it helps to ask pilots flying the same type aircraft as you so maybe they can say which power setting or airspeed works best. 

Text an instructor from training if you have their number, ask a friend if you know one, or find a forum (like a Facebook group) to start a discussion on. 

There are lots of resources out there nowadays that can help keep you safe and confident. And if you still feel uncomfortable, trust your gut and have a different crew fly it. Or fly into Eagle instead! 

Thanks for checking out this article, wishing you the best on your trips! If you have any great links or advice to add comment below!

5 More Things ATC Wants You to Know

2 weeks ago we discussed the topic of tips from ATC. After surveying some air traffic controllers, they provided advice for talking on the radios and things they really dislike that pilots do.

Well, the feedback on this was so good I mentioned doing part two. So here it is! 

cockpit

1) Emergency

If you're ever in distress for any reason, tell your controller. They can't help if they don't know what's going on. Maybe you have an electrical issue and are having to pop some circuit breakers before you get to the next assigned task or it's as drastic as losing an engine. But whatever the reason, even if it's not yet a full-blown emergency and you need some assistance from ATC, don't be afraid to just let them know.

Sky

2) Pop Up IFR

If you need a pop-up IFR, also sometimes referred to as a local IFR request, just ask for it. Some pilots will advise never to do that because it adds extra workload to controllers having to take that information from you, put it in the system then give you clearance. Sure, it does take a little extra time to do that work, but if you think it'll jeopardize safety, then do it. ATC would rather take the time to give you that clearance than you try and stay VFR and get into trouble. It truly only takes a few extra steps and if they aren't busy it isn't that big of a deal. Just have required information ready to read off such as name, phone number, the color of your aircraft, souls on board, fuel remaining, etc.

3) Request on Check In

When you're en-route and have a switch off between frequencies, most pilots' first instinct is to check in and advise of any requests they want then and there. "Center N224JW flight level 320 requesting direct destination."

Believe it or not, in most cases on that first initial check in with the new frequency, you're likely still in the last sector's airspace. This means for your new controller, most requests have to be called in and coordinated before authorizing it. So if you check in, it's busy, and you want to help ATC out, wait a minute or two before calling back if the request isn't urgent and you're more likely to get it off the bat.

4) Approach Check In

Another check in tip! When you're checking in with approach, try and give them all the required information you know they'll ask for so they don't have to play 20 questions. "Approach, N10JM 17,000 descending via the GESSNER4 arrival, information foxtrot for ILS 13R." 

Here they don't need to ask if you've gotten the ATIS and they know what approach you're wanting so they can be ready for it. 

5) Expedite

If a controller asks you to expedite through an altitude and report your current level, they actually needed that like 5 seconds ago. Don't delay on the expedite or reading it back to them. Seems simple but the issue occurs pretty commonly and this is where both teams need to work together.

This concludes just about all of the main talking points that were sent in. If you have any questions for ATC, things you as a controller would like to add, or questions/comments in general, comment below or send it in to us! 

 

Scuba Skies—The Precautions to a Safer Experience

I was talking to a close friend a couple weeks ago and she was telling me all about her scuba diving certificates and the places she has dove. She has gone to the Keys of Florida and even some quarry sites in a few other states! This summer she has decided to take on a whole new course and pursue certifications beyond her Advanced Open Water (AOW) with Professional Diving Instructors (PADI) training. I definitely admire her drive for adventure and bravery to swim with sharks but shipwreck snorkeling might be the deepest I ever desire to go. If you are also someone who loves the thrills of scuba diving yet all things flying, let’s quickly review some safety rules before you mix these two hobbies. 

If you are the pilot or the passenger, both should allow sufficient time before flying after a scuba dive to allow the body enough time to rid itself of excess nitrogen absorbed during a dive. Not taking heed to these rules may result in decompression sickness due to evolving gases during altitude exposure.

Here’s what the regulations say:

Flight altitudes up to 8,000ft:

  • Wait at least 12 hours after diving without a controlled ascent
  • Wait at least 24 hours after diving with a controlled ascent

Flight altitudes above 8,000ft:

  • Wait at least 24 hours after any dive (controlled or uncontrolled ascent)

Let’s dive a little bit deeper into the topic. According to AC 61-107B:

“Scuba diving requires breathing air under high pressure”. There is a considerable increase in the amount of nitrogen dissolved into the body under these conditions. In other words, the body is nitrogen saturated. The greater the depth of the scuba dive, the more the body is saturated in nitrogen. Nitrogen is distributed throughout the body by the circulatory system. The AC continues to state that “as atmospheric pressure is reduced as a result of ascent, the equilibrium is upset. This results in nitrogen leaving the body by passing from the cells, to the blood, and then out through the respiratory system. If the nitrogen is forced to leave too rapidly because of a large partial pressure difference, bubbles may form, causing a variety of signs and symptoms”. These symptoms can include abdominal pain, pain in the ears, toothache, and severe sinuses if the person is unable to equalize the pressure changes. Yikes!

Let’s take the proper precautions for a safer scuba dive experience if you decide to fly soon after. Have you ever gone or plan to go scuba diving? Leave a comment below!

5 Things ATC Wants You to Know

Recently I conducted a survey of air traffic controllers from all over the U.S. to find what they want from pilots, instead of what pilots want from them for once. Some well-deserved attention finally! Their input was well…overwhelming. There’s a lot we could be doing better.

radar

1) Stop saying “blooooocked”

This is exactly how they worded it! When pilots key up to say this on frequency, it just clogs up the frequency. If you’re going to advise them they were blocked, make it short and quick. But most of the time there’s no need to say it. They already know. Controllers sometimes work multiple frequencies and when they say they’re on a landline, 90% of the time it means they were on the line with another controller trying to coordinate. So just be patient and key back up when they’ve had enough time to talk to them.

2) Nobody Likes Bad Weather

On bad weather days, good routes turn to bad routes quickly and things have to change to accommodate that. Neither controllers nor pilots like bad weather. Just because someone was able to make it through 5 minutes before you doesn’t mean it’s a good idea now, so just keep working with the reroutes and be patient. A lot goes on behind the scenes that we don’t see. When a controller is trying to work these reroutes as well, there are usually 3-4 coworkers talking to them at the same time and likely even a supervisor/manager behind them all trying to control the sector -- meaning it gets hectic.

3) VFR Flight Following

I’m sure we’ve all heard someone doing this on the radio before: requesting flight following and taking 30 minutes to do so. Check-in with your altitude and not just your call sign if you already have flight following from a previous controller. If you need it, the format should be a simple “center, N240MT with a VFR request” then later followed by your current location from an airport or VOR station and destination. Don't forget to acknowledge traffic calls as well! They may be often and annoying but try to acknowledge every few so ATC knows you're receiving them.

4) Speak Up

If you need a different clearance than you were given or aren’t sure about a clearance, let them know (again in a professional manner). We all make mistakes and controllers sometimes do too so it doesn’t hurt their feelings to question it. They also can’t see weather like we can so if a route assigned doesn’t work that well, you can advise and describe the weather to them too (approximate bases, altitude, diameter, etc.) so they can use that for future use.

5) Don't Lie About NOTAM's

It's understandable that sometimes you forget to listen to the latest ATIS and check the latest NOTAM's, but if you need them and don't have them, just ask. Most of the time controllers can just read them off to you. What can be an issue is saying you have them, then asking for an approach that's not in service (like an ILS localizer) or for a closed runway. 

I heard a controller playing a joke to catch pilots calling for a taxi without it recently telling them "and advise you have information Charlie" then following with "information November is actually current call me when you have it." The absolute best ground controller prank I've heard yet!

There will likely be a part 2 to this in the future because the survey had such good feedback, but these were the most discussed topics on there that needed to be touched on. Keep in mind we all want to work together for the same goal each day: to see every flight land safely. 

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