All posts tagged 'Learjet'

Understanding Nosewheel Steering

In most small aircraft, steering on the ground is controlled by brakes and rudder pedals. This is through a mechanical linkage pulley system that's pretty old school, also referred to as a free-castering system.

However, as planes get heavier and faster the need for a different system came into place. The Learjet 60 is a perfect example of an aircraft with this. Thus nosewheel steering became the solution. Nosewheel steering facilitates better directional control on the ground for takeoff and landing and sharper maneuvering at slower speeds such as taxiing to park. 

A Design of a Nosewheel Steering

Nosewheel Steering depicted by FlightMechanic.com

There are various designs for nosewheel steering but this is the basic depiction of how it is designed. Most are hydraulically powered and have mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic connections that transmit the pilot input to a steering control unit. The range that these inputs can control the movement of the nosewheel are important, as you don't have full range to move the nosewheel 90 degrees in either direction at just any speed. Most systems only operate up to about 90 knots, and the faster the aircraft is increasing speed towards those knots the less movement the wheel will move. 

Hardly any aircraft manuals depict or discuss this range in detail but this is the best photo I could find that helps illustrate this. Just remember that the faster the aircraft reaches, the more the system goes from nosewheel steering back to your usual rudder pedal system. 

Another important component to know about in this is shimmy dampers. There are torque links attached to the stationary upper cylinder of a nose wheel strut that work to control rapid oscillations, otherwise known as nosewheel shimmy. You'll feel these oscillations sometimes when you're taxiing too fast and/or have too much pressure centered on the front wheel. Simply slow down or try pulling the yoke back then gently back forward and 9/10 times this will stop unless it is a mechanical issue that needs to be addressed. 

There's a lot of components that are a part of the nosewheel steering system. These however seem to be the most common issues pilots have when transitioning to using one and trying to keep their operations smooth and comfortable for passengers. To understand the system better on YOUR aircraft however make sure to always read your flight manual in depth and talk to your mechanics when you can. Usually they're happy to share knowledge and teach you how to not break things as much ;)

Questions or comments? Add them below. 

Transitioning Into Bigger Jets: What to Expect

A few weeks ago we did a post on how to prepare for 121/135 training, aka having to go to a training facility to do ground and sim training and pass a check ride at the end. We talked about tips for how to prepare, how to study and even what to study (biggest things to focus on). This week we're building on that foundation!

Airplane Cockpit

So let's start with the basics. Transitioning into bigger faster airplanes does not happen overnight. Studying over a period of time and making sure you're adequately prepared for your check ride that will eventually come up is the best strategy.

1) Memory Items & Limitations:

Same thing I wrote about last post: know your memory items and limitations BEFORE you even get to the training facility. This includes knowing max airspeeds and stall speeds. This will help for your first situation in handling the aircraft. You should have flash cards or an AFM with a limitations chapter & procedures tabs where you can find these items. Studying the AFM as well helps understand why these are memory items and in turn can help you memorize them

2) Don't Fly with Max Thrust Until You're Ready

This is a simple trick, and yet it's one of the most important. If you're jumping in the sim or airplane to fly for the first time, don't get overexcited about it! Sure it's exciting to get to go faster, but with "great speed comes great responsibility." That's a quote I just made up but there is a lot of truth to it!

After you takeoff, pull the power back

When you're cruising and having to fly a complicated clearance or getting ready for an approach, pull the power back as much as you're allowed

Giving yourself more time to set up and not having to rush through the flight generates less room for mistakes. 

3) Use the Autopilot Accordingly

Learn how the autopilot on this plane works: do you have FLC mode? VS? Any VNAV or APPR mode along with NAV? 

As soon as you have it available, click the mode you want and activate it. And if autopilot transfer is a mode on it then MAKE SURE it's selected to the side that is flying.

During training before you have a check ride or before a critical time, mess around with hand flying and no autopilot. I even shot an approach on the standby instruments without a PFD to see how sensitive the controls and power inputs are. This all just builds into better skill.

Learjet 60XR Cockpit

4) Learn How Your Thrust Levers/Throttles Work

I add this note in because not all levers have the same sensitivity. For example the Citation II takes some work, you have to use a little muscle to move them forward or backward. This is juxtaposed to the Learjets, where 1cm of movement changes N1 by 8%. Just getting a feel for how they work in your plane will be the first biggest step in flying well. 

Remember during your transition to take your time learning things to learn them thoroughly and to ask questions often. Sometimes learning an aircraft with more power can be frustrating and have you doubt your flying skills. Just know it takes time and will come. Fly safe and fly smart!

Questions/comments below

Learjet 85 Aircraft Mock-Up Tour Underway

Article By: www.aero-news.net
FMI: www.bombardier.com

Bombardier's Exclusive Fractional Launch Customer, Flexjet, Showcases New Aircraft Model At 11 Private Events

Flexjet and Bombardier are launching an 11-city U.S. tour offering the opportunity to experience firsthand the aircraft that the company says is poised to revolutionize the industry. Event partners Rolls-Royce, Chocolatier Emanuel Andren, Full Swing Golf and the Napa Valley Vintners will be onsite offering interactive experiences and expert tasting sessions for an unforgettable evening of style, luxury and performance.

Attendees are invited to take an exclusive tour of the Learjet 85 cabin mock-up—the first FAR Part 25 certified business jet built primarily from composite materials—and see first-hand the latest advances in aerodynamics, structures and efficiency that are ushering in a new benchmark in performance. Rolls-Royce’s Phantom and Ghost automobiles will be available for test-drives, while Full Swing Golf will offer guests the chance to play a World Championship golf course in one of its simulators. Famed chocolate artist Emanuel Andren will share his latest creations paired with the finest wines, courtesy of the Napa Valley Vintners. The tour is scheduled to visit Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Los Angeles, Monterrey, CA, New York, Orlando, FL, Seattle, WA, and Washington, DC.

“Anticipation for the Learjet 85 jet has been building since the program launch back in 2007,” said Fred Reid, President, Flexjet. “With delivery scheduled for 2013, we are taking the Learjet 85 aircraft mock-up, and some of our finest partners, on the road so our owners can truly experience the world of possibilities that will open up to them with the Learjet 85’s aircraft class-leading innovations. Featuring the latest in cabin technologies, and the Vision Flight Deck cockpit, we are relishing the opportunity to brightly shine the spotlight on the Learjet 85 aircraft.”

Bombardier says the Learjet 85 airframe, made mostly of composite material, requires less maintenance and is easier to repair for an extended service life. Other innovations include the aircraft’s state-of-the-art Pratt & Whitney PW307B turbofan engine, the Vision Flight Deck cockpit featuring the Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics suite—one of the most advanced suites ever offered onboard a midsize aircraft—and an advanced entertainment and wireless Internet system. The aircraft offers a high-speed cruise of Mach 0.82 and a transcontinental range of up to 3,000 nm.

Learjet 85 news

 

An update on the Learjet 85: Bombardier Aerospace announced just before the holiday weekend that its first-ever composite Learjet aircraft will have its wing structures manufactured at its Belfast, Northern Ireland facility. The plant also will make wings for the CSeries aircraft.


After the wing skin panels and spar components are finished, final assembly of the wings will take place at the company's new production plant in Queretaro, Mexico. 


Bombardier announced in September that constriction of the Mexico facility was on schedule


The composite business jet is expected to hit a high-speed cruise of Mach 0.82 and a range up to 3,000 NM, the fastest and farthest reaching Learjet to date.

 

Aviation News Rundown: Libya crash, plus news from Learjet 85 and Chevron Aviation

In the early stages of investigation, Libyan officials do not suspect terrorism in the crash of an Airbus A330 Wednesday just short of the Tripoli International Airport runway on final approach. At least 96 of the 104 died on board the Afriqiyah Airways flight from Johannesburg, South Africa to the Libyan capital. Flight Global reports the aircraft, confirmed by Airbus as serial number 1024, had completed just 1,600 hours in 420 flights prior to the crash.

Libyan officials reported one Dutch child survivor from the flight. Witnesses said it "exploded on landing."   

UPDATE: Reuters reports that the Airbus involved in the crash had passed European spot checks.

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Production of the mostly composite Lear 85 (pictured above) is on schedule, according to a report posted by AVWeb. Part assembly will begin in July in Mexico. The jet will be the first made by an American company to include Category 1 and Category 2 aircraft parts manufactured south of the border. Assembly will take place in Wichita, with the earliest deliveries arriving in 2013.

Meanwhile, delivery of the HondaJet again has been delayed until late 2012. An AP report cites a Honda spokesman blaming the second setback of a year or more on supplier delays of getting "unspecified major components" to the manufacturer.

Matt Thurber of AIN reports that Chevron Global Aviation will cease marketing Chevron and Texaco aviation fuel in 27 states, beginning Nov. 15. Chevron's distributor, Hiller/Air Petro, will continue serving operators in Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, Utah and Washington.

In the realm of aviation economics and adding to the continued release of first-quarter reports, the General Aviation Manufacturers Association says piston aircraft shipments for the first three months of the year were off by more than 7 percent, while turboprop shipments dropped by 32.6 percent and jet deliveries sunk 14 percent, to 164 total. However, total billings increased by 7.1 percent.

Once-struggling NetJets reported that quarterly revenues increased by 18 percent compared to the
same period in 2009.

 

 

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