All posts tagged 'Pilots' - Page 3

Pilot’s Bill of Rights Gains Congressional Approval

Article By: Paul Lowe
Brought to you by: www.ainonline.com

July 26, 2012, 4:20 PM

A bill requiring the FAA to inform pilots why they are being subjected to an enforcement action was passed by the House of Representatives on a voice vote and sent to President Obama for his signature. The Senate approved the measure in June.

The measure guarantees that pilots facing certificate action are provided access to ATC and flight service recordings, and requires the agency to provide the evidence being used as the basis of enforcement at least 30 days in advance of action. For the first time pilots would be able to appeal decisions in federal courts and the National Transportation Safety Board would be given a greater oversight role in reviewing enforcement cases.

Sen. James Inhofe (R-Okla.), a long-time general aviation pilot who ran afoul of the FAA when he landed his airplane on a closed runway in South Texas in October 2010, introduced the bill. Although the runway was marked as closed, Inhofe told investigators he didn’t see workers and trucks on the runway until it was too late to abort the landing. In the aftermath, the FAA ordered Inhofe to take remedial training. The senator complained he wasn’t treated fairly and felt powerless.

Never Run It Dry

Keeping track of the time/speed/distance equation is only part of fuel management
By Bill Cox
www.planeandpilotmag.com



It was the Christmas holiday, and I was on my way back from the Bahamas to Venice, Fla. Joe Ponte of Piper had graciously loaned me a Cherokee Six 300 in conjunction with a pilot report, and I had elected to take my mom and stepfather on a quick, four-day trek to Freeport and Nassau.

On the trip back, we made a stop in Fort Lauderdale to clear customs, turn in our survival gear and close our international flight plan, then relaunched for the short hop diagonally across the state to Venice on the Gulf Coast.
My parents were luxuriating in the back of the big Six as we cruised 6,500 feet above the swamp when the engine suddenly quit cold.

The immediate silence got everyone's attention, especially mine. I was the number-one son, and mom trusted me implicitly in any airplane. I didn't want to dispel that trust by doing something stupid, though it seemed I already had.

Of course, I had let one of the Cherokee Six's four tanks run dry, and the engine had shut down in a heartbeat, without a telltale tick of the fuel flow or any other forewarning. As calmly as I could, I turned on the fuel pump, then, feigning a casual motion, reached down and switched to a tank with some fuel in it. I turned to Mom and Bob in the back seat, summoned what I hoped would be a reassuring smile and said, "Sorry about that. It's no big problem. I just ran a tank dry. The engine will pick up in a few seconds."

I turned back forward, expecting power to return at any moment. I waited and waited. Nothing happened. We were gliding down toward Lake Okeechobee, and I was beginning to wonder if we were about to discover firsthand that the lake was only five feet deep as I had read.

Finally, after perhaps 20 seconds that seemed more like 20 minutes, I heard some expectant coughs from the Lycoming before it came slowly back online. We continued to Venice, and Mom's only comment after we landed was, "Does that happen often?"

Fortunately, if you're smart enough to plan ahead, it need never happen even once. I obviously wasn't and didn't, so it did

Fuel Management
The AOPA Air Safety Foundation reports that fuel exhaustion or mismanagement are all-too-common causes of accidents, generally fourth behind landing accidents, takeoff incidents and maneuvering flight at low altitude. Fuel exhaustion is exactly what it sounds like—running the tanks dry. Fuel mismanagement relates to landing with fuel still on board but inaccessible because of a system problem, because the pilot didn't know he had it available or simply forgot to change tanks.

Fuel management isn't really that tough these days, considering that totalizers keep almost perfect track of fuel burned and remaining. Even modern aircraft fuel gauges are more reliable than they used to be. In fact, managing fuel use was never that difficult to begin with, provided you knew how much you had on board, how much you were burning and when you departed. Assuming there were no leaks, the answer was a simple problem in elementary math. The difficulties arise when you don't know all three of the items above. Trouble is, many pilots are convinced they do know how much fuel is in the tanks when, in fact, they have only a vague idea.

Let's consider fuel capacity. According to the book, I can carry 64 gallons in my Mooney…or can I? I bought my airplane in 1987 and knew it had never been wrecked, so it was reasonable to assume the tanks were not deformed and still in the original shape. Fortunately, I had my Mooney's tanks resealed a few years ago, so I had the perfect opportunity to determine true capacity. Every ounce of fuel had to be drained in order to reseal the tanks, and that meant I was starting from true empty.

Accordingly, I pushed the airplane out to a level ramp, with no apparent list left or right. It was mid-morning, and the temperature was about 60 degrees F, pretty close to standard, so fuel density wasn't a concern. (Some long-distance flyers, in search of maximum range, have their fuel supercooled and pumped aboard at the last possible minute, then climb quickly to high altitude and burn the top off each tank before the avgas can expand and overflow.)

When the fuel truck arrived, I asked the fueler to pump the 100LL slowly so there would be less chance of an air bubble. While he pumped, I shook the wing at the tip to help any air escape. Then, I watched carefully to make certain the level came to the exact bottom of the filler neck.

When the fueler was done, the meter suggested I had taken aboard 33.1 gallons in the left tank and 33.4 gallons in the right, a total of 66.5 gallons, 2.5 more than maximum. According to Mooney, that's all usable, so I could assume that figure for flight planning. I don't. I use the standard 64-gallon capacity instead.

A deformed tank can be more common than you might imagine, and any deformation will almost always rob you of fuel capacity. After a friend with a Comanche 260 died of a heart attack many years ago, his widow asked me to maintain his airplane for her, taking it out for a walk every two months or so. She swore she'd never sell it, as it had been her late husband's beloved toy. Finally, reality intervened, and she asked me to sell it for her.

To read the remainder of this article: CLICK HERE

Three Tips For Effective Communication

I grew up in Dover, New Hampshire. Most locals tended to drop the letter R when it was at the end of a word. So I was from “Dovah,  New Hampshah.” We were not as bad as our neighbors from Boston (“Pahhhhk the cahhhh”), but you could see the influence. As I aged, traveled, and lived in different areas, the letter R returned.  Other than a raised eyebrow or two, the dropped R never really caused a problem with communicating. 

Within the cockpit, we need to speak clearly and concisely so that any pilot or controller can understand what is said. "Taxi to Runway 18" is not clearance to taxi onto runway 18. In the business world, we also need to communicate clearly. Major decisions can go awry because of misunderstandings. 

Aviation, like other professions, comes with its own tech-speak. Abbreviations and jargon can shorten sentences but can also cause confusion. Mention MSG-3 to the director of maintenance and you get conversation about maintenance philosophies. Mention that to an executive and they may think it is an ingredient in Chinese take-out. NPV gets a blank stare from the pilot and a smile from the CFO. As long as we stay within our discipline, communication can be tough enough, but when the pilot, the executive, the lawyer and the CFO sit down, things can easily be misunderstood or worse. Guess who we need for a successful aircraft acquisition?

The whole point with communication is to understand and be understood. Here are three tips to get everyone on the same page. 

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Explain it to me like I'm an eight-year old. 

Eliminate the jargon, or explain it. Jargon only serves to exclude people who aren't in the club and can easily make someone feel resentment over being left out. BFL is not a football league in Belgium. While replacing BFL with "runway needed for take-off" isn't 100% technically correct, it does get the point across. Don't dumb it down, just be clear. Simplicity works.  

Stay focused. 

With regards to an aircraft selection or recommendation, make sure you focus on the requirements for getting an aircraft. If the aircraft is for business use, make sure that all the requirements connect the aircraft with the corporate mission. Why do we need this non-stop range, why do we need this cabin size, why this many seats? The answer to these aircraft questions needs to end up at why you need the aircraft in the first place. 

Keep it short. 

Lincoln's Gettysburg address was 268 words. I know the lawyers don't/won't/can't do this, but in general, brevity helps with communications. When you communicate with individuals with different skill sets, keeping it straightforward keeps everyone on the same page. Did you ever read a seven page email? I know I never did and never will. A seven page report might be too short. A two page summary is too long. Brevity is using just enough words to convey the point.

We routinely work with the aviation department and the executive team at the same time. The pilot understands the technical information regarding why we are recommending a certain aircraft. The executive team understands why the recommendations make business sense. The cost and financial analysis needs to pass the scrutiny of the CFO. 

"I know that you believe you understand what you think I said, but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant." Robert McCloskey 

 

Find aircraft for sale listings and pilot resources for U.S. airports on GlobalAir.com.

FAA Proposes More Restrictive Interpretation Of Part 135 Flight And Rest Time Regulations

In a Notice of Proposed Interpretation published on December 23, 2010, the FAA is proposing to interpret the application of FAR 135.263 and the rest requirements of FAR 135.267(d) to a situation where an operator plans a flight that is anticipated to be completed within a 13.5-hour duty day but, unanticipated delays (e.g. late passengers, late cargo etc.) occur before the last leg of the flight, and these delays would extend the flight beyond a 14-hour duty day if the last leg is completed.

The FAA's current interpretation of these regulations, based upon legal interpretations issued in the 1990's, permits flight crewmembers to take off on flights that were scheduled to be completed within a 14-hour duty period even though circumstances beyond the crewmembers' control extended the actual duty time beyond the permissible 14-hour period. However, this interpretation is inconsistent with its current interpretation of the near identical language in
FAR 121.471(g) which would not permit the crewmembers to take off on the last leg of the flight.

The FAA's interpretation of the language of
FAR 121.471(g), which was upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit, created an exception to pilot flight time limitations, but did not provide an exception for pilot rest requirements. In the Court of Appeals decision, the Court also stated that "[t]he substance of the rules in FAR Parts 121 and 135 is essentially the same and the rules are likewise interpreted." The FAA's interpretations of FAR 121.471(g) along with the Court of Appeals case have been known as the "Whitlow Letter line of interpretations."

According to the proposed interpretation, "[t]he FAA has determined that it is illogical that the nearly-identical regulatory language in sections 121.471(g) and 135.263(d) is interpreted in two different ways" and "the Whitlow Letter line of interpretations best reflects the FAA's current understanding of the pertinent regulatory language." As a result, under the proposed interpretation, if a flight crewmember knows at the time of departure on the last leg of the flight that he or she has not had the required rest,
FAR 135.267(d) would prohibit him or her from departing on the last leg of the flight.

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Comments to the proposed interpretation are due on or before January 24, 2011. If you have any questions regarding the proposed interpretation or would like further information, you may contact Alex Zektser, Attorney, Regulations Division, Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone: (202) 267- 3073; e-mail: [email protected].

This proposed interpretation could have a potentially significant impact on the operations of Part 135 on-demand air carriers. I encourage all Part 135 operators and pilots who fly for those operators to submit comments to the proposed interpretation.  Your comments are most welcome as we all learn through open dialogue.

NBAA, Cessna to host events for aircraft owners-operators

A day prior to the official start of the NBAA Convention, on Oct. 19 in Atlanta, the National Business Aviation Association and Cessna Aircraft will host a session focused on single-pilot aircraft safety. The event will be one of several of note to be held by the NBAA and Cessna in the coming weeks.

The Cessna/NBAA Single-Pilot Safety Stand-down takes place Oct. 18, including a full day of safety programs for owner/operators and pilots. Topics include professional airmanship, single-pilot resource management, icing, aviation health, and fatigue countermeasures.

"Gravity and human error don’t discriminate by manufacturer or flight crew," said Cessna manager of flight operations, safety and security Dan Grace on the NBAA web site. “Single pilots are out there by themselves, without the extra checks and defenses of a crew environment, but they can build themselves up through continuing education and safety training."

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For more information on the session, click here.

Other events focusing on light-business aircraft at NBAA will include How to Use General Aviation for Business Purposes, Single Pilot Safety and Moving Up to a Turbine Aircraft, among other sessions. See the full list here.

Before the NBAA Convention, the folks at Cessna will host a series of aircraft-specific M&O sessions focused on its Citation fleet.

Unlike in prior years, Cessna will broadcast the sessions on the Internet throughout this week. Click here to see the dates, times and aircraft involved.

Be sure to visit GlobalAir.com during the NBAA Convention, where we will give away a free iPad. Stop by booth 3608 to say hello and get details on the giveaway.

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