All posts tagged 'flight training'

How to Determine Your Pivotal Altitude

Whether you're working on your commercial certificate now, going to be, or already have then you'll find this useful.

As part of the Commercial ACS, we as pilots have to learn Eight's-on-Pylons. This is a maneuver in which the plane flies around two pylons maintaining a visual sight reference with each one in relation to the lateral axis of the airplane. Drawing the plane's ground track, it looks like a figure 8, thus the term Eight's-on-Pylons. 

Picture from the Airplane Flying Handbook

One of the most important concepts to take from this maneuver is pivotal altitude.

So what is it?

Pivotal altitude is the altitude at which, for a given groundspeed, the projection of the visual reference line to the pylon appears to pivot. Simply put, it's what the plane keeps coming back to each time you're able to maintain the pylon off the wingtip and hold it. 

This is also something that is calculated before the maneuver is begun using the airplane's groundspeed. It's the groundspeed squared divided by either 15 for miles per hour or 11.3 for knots. 

Some things to note about pivotal altitude is it does not change with the angle of bank, given that it is not steep enough to affect the groundspeed (but if you do the maneuver and correct for wind properly you shouldn't have to over-steepen the bank where this happens). 

Pivotal altitude can be noted very easily while flying around the pylons. All you have to do is get the plane stabilized where you're holding the pylon off the wingtip with no pitch up or down correction, then look at your altimeter and note the altitude! This is what the plane will keep coming back to. 

You should also enter and exit the maneuver at the pivotal altitude; how close or far you are from it when exiting can exhibit how well the maneuver was performed. 

If you're needing help with commercial maneuvers, or just want to pursue a commercial certificate, take a look at our Aviation Training Directory to find somewhere near you to train.

Best of luck with your Eight's-on-Pylons and happy landings!

-Addi

 

Understanding the Fundamentals of Instructing

Picture this: it's your first flight lesson ever. You walk into your brand new flight school, in which you've never flown their planes before, and have yet to meet anyone you know there. This is all fresh to you. Do you think your first flight lesson will be highly productive, or will produce somewhat of a challenge?

The answer is, according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, that you will not learn as much as if you felt comfortable in your new school. This is the belonging hierarchy. Once you get settled in, learn their fleet, make some friends and are known by the people there then you'll start to unconsciously progress better with each lesson.

Factors such as this are what makes up what is referred to as Fundamentals of Instructing, or FOI's. 

FOI's are important to the instructor in flight training as well as to the student because it defines concepts like human behavior & how we acquire knowledge; why we act the way we do and how we learn. 

Let's discuss some important topics of FOI's that are commonly seen as well as discussed on a flight instructor check ride:

1) Human Needs That Must Be Met to Encourage Learning

Physiological: Biological needs such as water, air, sleep and shelter. It's easier to focus and grasp something when you've eaten and are properly hydrated compared to when you're not.

Security: Feeling safe and secure in the environment around you

Belonging: Just as previously discussed, feeling wanted and including

Esteem: Have you ever heard of a lesson where your instructor refers to it as confidence building? Self confidence is important in flying

Cognitive & Aesthetic: This is connected to when we as humans like or don't like something. We'll learn more from a teacher that we like than one we don't.

Self-Actualization: I like to think of this as knowing where you're at and where you're going. Helping a student achieve their potential is an important job of a flight instructor.

2) Defense Mechanisms

Repression, Denial, Compensation, Projection, Rationalization, Reaction Formation, Fantasy, and Displacement

These are important to recognize because they're excuses (so to speak) that people use when they have a bad experience to protect their ego. One of the most common exhibited by students in flight training is reaction formation; faking a belief opposite to the true belief because it causes anxiety. For example, pretending they don't care how their lesson went after a bad day when in reality it bothers them. These can all be found in more detail in the Aviation Instructor's Handbook chapter 1.

3) Types of Practice

Skipping ahead to chapter 3, there are types of practice instructor's can use to help a student learn a skill. These are:

Deliberate: Aiming a practice at a deliberate goal, such as specifically focusing on slow fight during one lesson. The student and instructor have set a goal to accomplish something before beginning the lesson.

Blocked: This is doing the same drill until the movement becomes automatic, also known as creating a muscle memory. Blocked practice can be seen most often during landings, as the instructor has the student memorize a before landing checklist. The student configures the plane on downwind (mixture full rich, carb heat, gear down etc) then can go to the checklist to ensure they did not forget an item. 

Random: Random practice is mixing up skills, for example going out and giving the student maneuvers to perform randomly so it tests how well they understand and can perform it consistently. 

There are MANY many concepts to learn about when studying FOI's. These are just 3 that will likely be brought up by an examiner, however they will cover much much more. 

The Aviation Instructor's Handbook as well as the Flight Instructor Oral Exam Guide published by ASA are good materials to use when preparing for a CFI check ride. 

After you finish reading about FOI's, go check out some more articles full of aviation information published by Globalair.com as well as reading articles written by our 2019-2020 scholarship recipients! 

Questions are comments about FOI's? Comment below

Obtaining an SIC Type Rating

Happy November everyone!

If you're like me lately, life has been super busy yet fun. And part of that busy-ness includes obtaining an SIC type rating for the first time. What needs to happen? What do you have to have? How does it differ from a regular add-on rating to your certificate?

Let's talk about it.

First things first, there is no check ride for an SIC type rating (and what a beautiful thing that is). It's a matter of meeting the training requirements and having an extra 20 minutes one day to meet with the FSDO/a DPE to do paperwork

1. Training Requirements

According to FAR Part 61.55 you have to have:

-At least a private pilot certificate with the appropriate category and class rating

-An instrument rating or privilege that applies to the aircraft being flown if the flight is under IFR

-At least a pilot type rating for the aircraft being flown unless the flight will be conducted as domestic flight operations within US airspace.

-No person may serve as a SIC of an aircraft type certificated for more than one required pilot flight crewmember or in operations requiring a second-in-command unless that person has within the previous 12 calendar months:

"Become familiar with the following information for the specific type aircraft for which second-in-command privileges are requested -

(i) Operational procedures applicable to the powerplant, equipment, and systems.

(ii) Performance specifications and limitations.

(iii) Normal, abnormal, and emergency operating procedures.

(iv) Flight manual.

(v) Placards and markings.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, performed and logged pilot time in the type of aircraft or in a flight simulator that represents the type of aircraft for which second-in-command privileges are requested, which includes -

(i) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop as the sole manipulator of the flight controls;

(ii) Engine-out procedures and maneuvering with an engine out while executing the duties of pilot-in-command; and

(iii) Crew resource management training."

That sounds like a lot, but it can be done pretty quickly.

I recently had to go through this for a CE-525 rating so I could start doing some contract flights. 99% of my flights lately have been in a CJ3 like this one listed on GlobalAir.com.

After going through this training over the course of about 2 months/4 flights, I called my local FSDO to set up an appointment to have the paperwork done.

They directed me from there to contact a DPE, whom I met with days later and had my SIC rating in hand within 20 minutes. No fee, no headache, and NO CHECK RIDE. 

Did I mention there was no check ride?!?! Best. feeling. ever.

There's also some more requirements that have to be met for the type rating, such as who can conduct the SIC training, listed in Part 61.55 as well. Make sure to read and understand them all before going up for a flight in order to avoid any issues.

2. Use of an SIC Type Rating

Before going through the training process, especially if you're paying for that flight time, ensure that the type rating will be put to use. For what purpose do you want to log SIC time? Just to build time? Meeting the requirements of a company you're flying for?

I'm sure the answer is straightforward, but it's always best to ask yourself these types of questions before jumping into something.

Other than this, SIC type ratings are pretty simple. Make sure when going through training you pay attention to the above listed items that you need to know, the more you know the safer you are!

Have any other tips for an SIC type rating you'd like to add? Feel free to comment below.

Happy Landings,

-Addi

Understanding Spins and How to Properly Recover From Them

So, as promised, I did spin training within the last 2 weeks and got my endorsement. October 3rd to be precise, and it was an absolute blast.

Pictured above is my instructor and I in the Decathlon (excuse my chipmunk cheeks, courtesy of my DC headset pushing on them).

I learned a lot more once I actually went through the ground and flight training with him than I had thought I would. So, let's talk about some concepts that can be overlooked but are still important:

1) In the last post about spin training I wrote about PARE; 

Power idle

Ailerons neutral

Rudder full opposite the direction of the turn

Elevator briskly down

That's pretty much the general knowledge that everyone knows, not much else. Well, what about after the spin is broken? Do you just keep holding in those controls? No.

After applying rudder, you hold it in the opposite direction of the turn. This is what breaks the spin itself. Taking away power and ailerons is only to stay away from aggravating the spin, but those steps won't break it. After breaking the spin, meaning you've stop the turn in that direction, neutralize the rudder. If you don't you'll start a spin in the other direction. Because remember, you're still stalled

As you see the plane breaking out of the spin, then apply your elevator down. Most people think you do all 4 steps at once, but there's a precise time to do each one. Applying the elevator down will then break the stall (if you remember basic stall characteristics, this is reducing the angle of attack). Now smoothly apply your power back in to gain altitude (as you lose it very quickly in a spin) and smoothly bring the nose back up just above to horizon to start climbing.

So, to recap:

After inducing a spin you-

Power idle

Ailerons neutral

Rudder full opposite and hold it until the spin breaks

Elevator down as the spin breaks to then break the stall

Neutralize rudder after breaking spin to stop turn in other direction

Smoothly apply power and bring the nose back up to just above the horizon and start a gentle climb.

Remember that in a real situation to stay calm and remember these procedures, don't panic and try to turn the ailerons or yank the nose up. Follow these steps then be smooth in your recovery so you don't stress out the plane too much. Flying with structural damage would be a whole different ballgame. 

2) Entry into a spin. I feel like that needs to be talked about more! What are the signs you're about to enter a spin? Does it immediately start spiraling to the ground?

To help show what it looks like here's the video I took: https://www.instagram.com/p/B3LQjLpgazG/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link 

I hate to include a link to Instagram but it's the easiest way to share a video!

If you watch it, you'll notice it actually takes some work to induce a spin. First, both wings of the plane have to be stalled. In most spin training flights instructors us a cross-control stall to induce this because it's an easy way to bring it the lack of coordination.

So, you bring the nose up and exceed the critical angle of attack. In a demonstration, you're keeping this coordinated until you're about to induce the actual stall. Then you step on rudder in either direction (the direction you want to spin in) and keep it uncoordinated (ball out of center on your turn coordinator) until the plane buffets and a wing drops. Now, after the wing drops the plane does not immediately enter a crazy death-defying spin to the ground. It's actually a somewhat slow process.

Here, you still have time to react. There are 4 phases of a spin: entry, incipient, developed and recovery. Right here you're in the incipient phase. You've already induced a stall and applied too little/too much rudder. Now as the wing falls it has to have 2-3 turns before it's a fully developed spin. These are somewhat slow turns, when you're in the plane these feel slower than the ones when the plane is in stabilized autorotation. This can also be noted in the video.

These are all some concepts that should be noted for spin training and spin avoidance/recovery. Even if you're not going for a CFI certificate, I recommend to everyone taking at least one spin training course. We, as pilots, make errors. We're not perfect, but we can learn how to counteract our mistakes. 

Not to mention, it's super fun. 

While you may not go do spin training this weekend, you should go do something fun. Check out our calendar and see if there's any fun events going on near you, as I know this weekend we'll be having Wings Over Houston with us at Ellington! 

Happy Landings from all of us at Globalair.com,

-Addi

 

Preparing for Spin Training

Well well well.....the time has come for me and I am so excited. Almost immediately after I got my multi rating I started on CFI training, and so far it's been an absolute blast. A lot of work but such a fun adventure. And what does every CFI applicant have to do as part of their curriculum?

You guessed it....spin training.

I won't lie, I'm actually pretty nervous about it. The thought of spiraling towards the ground isn't necessarily a settling thought. 

But, I want to be prepared so I can have a good experience. Studying procedures to break out of a spin and understanding what induced a spin in the first place is a good place to start. So, if you're like me and soon to do spin training (or know you will have to in the future), let's discuss a few things.

First, what IS a spin exactly?

Well, you just need two magical ingredients to induce a spin. A stall, and lack of coordination in the plane. Kind of scary to think that's all it takes!

So visual you're teaching a student a power-on stall (I find this one is hardest to keep coordinated). You have full throttle and a high pitch-up attitude. The stall is induced and you look over to realize the ball is wayyyy out of the center of the turn coordinator. You don't recover from the buffet fast enough and with the ball still out of center, you can literally feel the plane wanting to start its roll (this is actually how it would happen). This is because one of the wings stalled first, and so it dropped. What keeps the spin rotating is one of the wings regaining lift while the other (the dropped wing) remains stalled. So what do you do next (besides scream if we're being honest)?

PARE PARE PARE PARE PARE PARE PARE PARE PARE

Did I mention this acronym called PARE?

PARE is what's going to save your life and break the spin so you can recover. Here's what it stands for:

Power idle

Ailerons neutral

Rudder full opposite the direction of the turn

Elevator down (briskly push that yoke forward)

I'll be writing a blog post after I complete my spin training more in depth on these concepts, so we'll discuss then WHY exactly these procedures exist and how they break the spin.

I've been taught PARE since the beginning of my private training and have never actually performed it, so next week will be interesting. But every time someone even mentions a spin, my mind is screaming PARE.

Pictured below is the plane I'll be performing mine in, so I'll also be working to get that tailwheel endorsement signed off!

My flight school, which is Harvey-Rihn out of T41, uses this Decathlon for all their CFI students spin training. 

Need help finding a flight school to do yours out of? Or maybe you're just wanting anything from recurrent training to a new license? Use our Flight School Directory to find a flight school near you. This directory is kept up-to-date and is NOT just for finding schools within the USA, there's other countries on that list as well. 

Anyone have any good spin training stories or tips for flying? Share below in the comments!! We'd love to hear. Stay tuned for the next post on how it goes. 

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