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3 Ways to Study More Effectively

by Lydia Wiff 15. April 2017 09:00
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It’s that time of year again!  Yes, Finals are just around the corner and this is when life get exceptionally busy for college students.  We’re all busy finishing up last projects, presentations, papers, and preparing for our last round of exams plus our Final exams (yes, some professors give two tests back to back).  The great thing about college and higher education, you learn several ways to study.  I’ll cover three ways you can study more effectively and hopefully it will save you some effort whether you’re taking a final exam or studying for your next checkride.

#3: Do Less & Not More

Now, I know this seems a little backwards, but cramming more material versus being strategic about your study time has been shown to be more productive.  In a study done by the University of California – Las Angeles (UCLA), cramming for a test or burning through a pile of homework was less beneficial than getting the extra sleep and picking up again in the morning. 

The pattern of cramming more homework in a few hours at night is often derived from habits in high school when most students are at school for hours a day only to come home to that many more hours of homework.  In addition to these habits, colleges often suggest two to three hours of studying for every one credit hour.  For the average student, taking the average full-time load of 12 credits, this is at least 24 hours of study per week.

Now, add the “recommended” 24 hours of studying, if you’re only taking 12 credits, and add your part time job (or jobs).  Most students are taking above the full-time limit to either finish programs on time, or just to quality for scholarships and financial aid.  Pretty soon, your “recommended” study time creeps well above 30 hours, not to mention your work schedule.

You end up being stuck with a few hours at night to accomplish everything you need to and you end up at the point of diminishing returns – less sleep, a propensity to become sick, and reduced attention spans.  This is where it is important to come to grips with the fact that sometimes doing less is actually more.

#2: What Worked Once Won’t Always Work Twice

A few years ago, I remember an individual asking me how I studied for my classes – I think they wondered if my study methods directly correlated to how well I did in class.  Moreover, it seems a common misconception is that a student uses exactly the same method for every class – this is far from the truth. 

We learn many study methods over the course of high school as well as college.  However, I have found what works in one class does not work in others.  For instance, if you’re taking a class that is full of facts and numbers, such as a science class, you may find yourself using a lot of flash cards to memorize terms and definitions.  On the other hand, you may find yourself in a class that requires understanding concepts, and not just recognizing terms.  You will probably have to understand the context behind a definition and connect that to a real-world example.  This does not even account for the fact that no two professors teach or write tests and assignments the same.  For these reasons, I find myself adapting in almost every class when implementing my studying strategy. 

                                              

For instance, I am currently in a class that prepares me for a certification exam in airport operations and administration.  The study material is almost entirely context-based, meaning I need to understand what something does rather than just memorize a term or a name.  I probably won’t get asked to select the correct year for a piece of important aviation legislation, but I’ll be given the name and date of that act and asked what it accomplished for the airport industry. 

So, it’s important to get a feel first for how the professor teaches and what they test on and then adjust your techniques accordingly.

#1: Take a Break

I saved this tip for last because I think it’s the most underappreciated tip out there.  We all think “of course I take breaks!”  However, those breaks are probably after we’ve done an all-night study session and we want to grab a few hours of sleep before our big comprehensive final.  The most important piece of advice I got while in community college was to do intense periods of studying (30 minutes max) followed by 10 minutes of break.

This break could be on social media, listening to music, or some other relaxing activity such as walking.  The point is that you concentrate on studying with no distractions for a certain period of time followed by a real break.

Similar publications and articles suggest between 30 and 50 minutes of concentrated studying along with five to ten minutes of a break.  The goal is to get quality study time in which you actually retain knowledge versus pulling an all-night session and not being able to retain even half of the information.

Happy Studying!

Honestly, few people actually enjoy spending hours studying, but hopefully you have a few new ideas how to study more effectively.

Remember:

·       Study less, not more;

·       Be strategic in your methods;

·       And, take a break!

For all of you out there in the final throes of the semester (like me), keep up the good work and study smarter, not harder!

Image courtesy of Google.com.

 

 

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Lydia Wiff | UND

3 Ways to Dust Off Your Logbook

by Lydia Wiff 31. March 2017 07:00
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Spring is here!  It’s hard to believe I was just writing about winter weather flying and now spring has officially sprung (as of nine days ago).  For many of you, you might be tied to the weather during the winter when it comes to flying.  This could be due to the ratings you hold, the airport you hanger at, or even the equipment your aircraft is equipped with.  Whatever your reason may be, the arrival of spring means the return of better flying days!  So, today I will share a few ways to dust off your logbook.

#3: Get Current

I know, it’s probably the old standby for when we want to fly, but have no idea where to fly to.  Spring is the perfect time to sneak in an early morning flight to get day current.  So, that means that every 90 days, you need to get out there and do three take-offs and landings, full-stop, to carry passengers.  This could easily take up an hour of flying and it gets you back into the pattern at your home airport, or maybe a nearby airport.

Likewise, you should get night current while you are at it.  Although, darkness comes a lot later these days, so plan accordingly.  Another great way to get current, as an Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) rated pilot, is to get instrument current.  Every six calendar months, you will need to log at least six instrument approaches, holding procedures, including intercepting and tracking courses using a navigation system.

While you probably should not wait every 90 days to practice landings, or every six months to do instrument work, it does happen.  If it has been awhile, be sure to take up a current pilot with you as a safety pilot, or better yet: find an instructor!  Getting current is a great way to ease back into fair-weather flying.

#2: Do Your Flight Review

What once used to be called the Biennial Flight Review, now is just shortened to Flight Review (FR).  This requires a pilot holding any certificate to go through a review flight with a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) every 24 calendar months.

I would describe the FR as an abbreviated check ride.  You go through many of the same topics in a checkride, but it is much shorter.  You might remember reading about my interview with Woody Minar, a seasoned Designated Pilot Examiner.  In that interview, he gives some good tips in preparing for your upcoming FR.  If you want some additional tips from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), check out this link to their FR guide.

Lastly, did you know that safety seminars through the FAA Safety Team (FAAST) can give you credit towards an FR?  Through attending seminars in various topics around or at your home airport and a little extra flying with an instructor, you can get credit for an FR.  I’ve done this once before and made it through the Basic Level – you get to learn a lot, fly a little, and get a cool pin to wear.  Furthermore, the goal of working through all the levels is a good way to push yourself to keep up with your weekend flying (or whenever you can work it in).

#1: Fly for Fun!

I realize that all of us can’t afford to rent an aircraft all the time.  Sometimes the harsh reality of the bank account is enough to keep even the most passionate pilot from flying on a sunny spring day.  For this reason, I encourage all you pilots to find a flying buddy.

Finding a fellow pilot to fly with is great for several reasons: you have someone to talk to, you can both brush up on your skills, and (most importantly) you can split the costs!  Not only do you need to find a fellow pilot to fly with, but you need to find somewhere fun to fly to – this could be a lake place, a golf course, a friend’s private airport, a museum, and more.  The possibilities are endless and they give you a purpose for flying. 

Enroute to fun destinations is a great time to practice slow flight, stalls, Commercial maneuvers, landings at other airports, dead reckoning, instrument approaches, going under the hood, or simply building cross-country time.  You really can’t go wrong when your fun flying has a learning purpose.

Happy Flying!

Hopefully you have some ideas now on how to take advantage of the better weather and dust off your logbook.  I’m hoping to get some flying in myself in a few weeks when I get back home for Easter – by the way, did you realize that is just around the corner too???

Happy Spring Flying!

Images courtesy of Google.com

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Aircraft instruments, IFR, IMC, safety | Flying | GlobalAir.com | Lydia Wiff | UND

Tales from the Red River Valley

by Lydia Wiff 15. March 2017 08:00
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At UND Aerospace, the sense of community and family is strong among the current students and faculty, but even more so among the alumni.  My first opportunity to connect with my interviewee was through my work with the UND Air Race Classic Team when Mr. Leppke sent me a brief message relating his time in the UND Flying Club which preceded the School of Aerospace Sciences.  I have been wanting to share Mr. Leppke’s story for some time, and I was excited when he and I could exchange emails and read his tales from the Red River Valley. 

Bob Leppke, a UND alumnus, studied in John Odegard’s first aviation class.  Retired, he lives in Seattle where he enjoys his grandkids and the area’s aviation culture. 

Lydia Wiff (LW): Tell me how you ended up at UND.

Bob Leppke (BL): I grew up on a farm southwest of Carrington, North Dakota.  Prior to UND, my education included 8 years in a one room school house close to our family farm and 4 years at the Carrington High School.  In high school, I became interested in business.  Through my older brother, a UND graduate, I became familiar with the university. Because of the strong reputation of the College of Business, I decided to attend UND. 

LW: Tell me about your degree program at UND and how you got involved in the Flying Club (precursor to UND Aerospace).

BL: I selected the Business Administration BS/BA degree program in the College of Business.  I enjoyed the business curriculum especially, the courses on management.   The four years went by quickly.   Not only did I gain an education, I gained a wife two years into my college career.

In the spring of my senior year, I needed an elective to fill out the semester. I wanted something different, so I ended up enrolling in the Introduction to Aviation course.  I did not have any aviation experience but always loved airplanes. As a kid, I loved to build model airplanes and watch a neighbor fly his Piper Cub over our farm. 

It was the first time the course was offered at UND.  The class included 11 other students and was held in one of the basement rooms in the UND Law building.  I can still remember the first day.    John Odegard, our instructor gave us a summary of what he would cover and what materials we would need.  The goal of the class was to prepare students for the FAA private pilot written exam.  I did not know where it would lead, but I was thrilled with the course material and was especially impressed with John Odegard’s instruction.  I studied harder for this class than the business-related classes and it paid dividends because I ended up with an “A” and passed the FAA exam.  

Since I had to stay in Grand Forks for the summer, I talked to John about flight lessons.  I was concerned whether I would have time to complete the requirements for the PPL before I needed to leave Grand Forks for the military.  The Vietnam War was in progress and I ended up being drafted after graduation.  John laid out a schedule that convinced me I could complete the training in time.  I joined the UND Flying Club and scheduled lessons with one of the club instructors.  There is no doubt that John’s enthusiasm had rubbed off.  I could not wait to get started.  At that time the club had a Cessna 150, Piper Cherokee 180 and a Mooney.   

LW: Tell me about your flight instructors.

BL: My first flight instructor was Ann Ross Anderson. I met her at the UND Flying Club hanger and she took me on my first flight using the Flying Club’s 1967 Cessna 150 (6232S).    John Odegard’s course had already planted the desire to fly, but after the first flight, I was really hooked.  I reached around 10 hours of dual instruction when Ann told me she accepted a job with the FAA in Grand Rapids, MI and was leaving Grand Forks. During my time with Ann, I learned that she served our country during WWII as a member of the WASP’s (WWII   1942-1944 Women’s Auxiliary Service Pilots).  She was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2009.  I was ready for my first solo but Ann felt it would be best to get started with another instructor before I soloed. 

My second flight instructor was Col. Lincoln L. White.  He was serving in the US Air Force at the Grand Forks Airbase as a B-52 navigator.  He told me many stories about his love for flying and his time in the military. Because of his military background, he expected perfection in my flying, navigation and knowledge of the airplane.  I looked forward to each lesson with him.   Thankfully, he was able to stay in Grand Forks until I was ready for the PPL check ride. 

Five days before I was scheduled to begin my US Army training at FT Lewis, WA, Col. White gave me my last review and scheduled me for the PPL check ride with Elton Lee Barnum.  After an hour and half in the air, Mr. Barnum shook my hand and said I passed.  I was thrilled and could not wait to tell my wife who was waiting in the Club hanger.   I took my wife for a short flight and then called John Odegard to thank him for all the instruction and encouragement.   I could not think of a better way to cap off my time at UND.  That night we left Grand Forks. I did not know at the time that two years later I would be back. 

LW: Tell me about your experience interacting with John Odegard.

BL: During the spring semester Introduction to Aviation class, my contact with John was primarily in the classroom.  But something was different.   His passion for aviation was rubbing off.  He made learning fun and brought a high level of enthusiasm to the class.  

After I found out that I had passed the FAA written exam, I went to his office to talk to him.  He congratulated me and asked me questions about the exam.  During the discussion, he expressed a disappointment that a number of students had failed the exam.  He told me that he felt he had not included some topics in his instruction.  He did not blame the students.  It was after I completed the course that I started to have more contact with John. His help in getting me started on flight lessons was greatly appreciated.  The relationship changed from instructor to mentor.    

During my second year in the Army, I found out that I could get discharged two months early if I went back to college.  The timing was excellent because I could leave the Army with just enough time to start a fall semester.  I had been in contact with John Odegard during my time in the Army and learned that he was able to implement curriculum for a full aviation administration major within the School of Business.  After some back and forth mail and encouragement from John I decided to return to UND. 

I left Ft Lewis, Washington August 15th, my last day in the Army and returned to Grand Forks.   It was great to see the expansion of the aviation program.  John had also managed to obtain two new Cessna 150’s. I enrolled in 24 semester hours of junior and senior-level aviation courses over the 70-71 school year.  The classes included Advanced Aeronautics, Air Transportation, Airline Operations, Airport Management, Advanced Instrument, Intro to Air Traffic Control, and Aerospace Law.  I also enrolled in one Advanced Aero Lab and flew 44 hours toward a commercial license.  Classes were held in the rooms on the first floor of Gamble Hall.   John’s office was located next to the classrooms. 

It was like coming back home.   I ended up have both John Odegard and Mr. Barnum for instructors.  John taught the airport management class.   I remember two projects that I worked on, one was picking an airport and writing a paper about it.  I picked the new Houston International Airport in TX.  I also built a model of one of the terminal buildings.  The second study was on airport snow removal.   One milestone during the class was John taking us on a tour of the Winnipeg Airport in the UND DC 3.  (No Passports, customs.  Can you imagine what it would take today) It was my first and only ride in a DC3.   Mr.  Barnum taught the Advanced Instrument course.  There were new instructors teaching the other courses.   One instructor would fly to Grand Forks from North Central Airlines in Minneapolis.   He would later open the door for me to interview with North Central Airlines.

Things had changed at the airport.  UND had a small trailer used as a pilot lounge on the west side of the large Quonset hanger. The airport was now controlled by a tower.   The Cessna 150s were tied up outside the Quonset. The DC 3 was parked inside the Quonset.  They also had a maintenance shop in the Quonset and had one mechanic on staff.

As I was getting close to the end of the 1971 spring semester I started looking for a job in aviation.  John helped by creating a booklet with information about those of us that were completing the major.   He also helped arrange an interview at Republic Airline in Minneapolis.   

Through the years I have always been grateful for John’s impact on my life during those years at UND.   John’s approach to learning and pursuit of excellence was a major help during my career in software engineering and IT.   The fact that John is the only classroom instructor that I remember from my college days tells a lot. 

LW: Where did you end up after graduation and where are you at today?

BL: After adding the Aviation Administration major to my degree I left Grand Forks to look for a position in Airline management.  It was bad timing because the airline industry was in one of its deepest recessions.   I needed work so I fell back on my business major and ended up with an IT management position in Chicago.   I stayed in Chicago for 10 years and then moved to Boston where I managed a software engineering group. After 14 years in Boston I moved to Seattle to work as an IT Project Management Professional until I retired in 2010.

LW: What are some important lessons you learned at UND?

BL: One of the lessons I learned while at UND was to set goals and be persistent in pursuing the goals.  It is interesting that after all the business courses it was the aviation training that added the most valuable aspects in pursuing a successful career.  Being a pilot there is structure and discipline that you learn that is so important in life.   It also is a great confidence builder.   Every time I was faced with something difficult in my career, I would think back to my aviation days at UND.

LW: What have been some of your networking experiences with UND alumni? 

BL: In my business travels, I started to run into aviation graduates and loved to share those early days of aviation at UND with them.  I have enjoyed the Alumni get-together in Seattle where I have met a number of UND aviation graduates.  Through my 40 year career in IT and Software Engineering, I told countless people about the program.  My co-workers in Chicago, Boston, and Seattle all heard about UND Aviation.  If I ran into anyone looking for a career in aviation, I always directed them to UND.

I noticed as the years went by that more people, especially those connected to aviation, knew about the aviation program at UND.   In 2010 I got to know the CEO of Alaska Airlines.   He talked about hiring from UND.   I also have found out that some of the graduates from the air traffic control program are now working in Seattle.

LW What is your advice to UND students and recent graduates?

BL: Do not be afraid to take risks.  Try new things.   All your experiences are building blocks in your career path.  With hard work, you will find success in all that you do.

LW: What’s one thing you’ll always take away from UND?

BL: I have always been proud to have my degree from a university in my home state.  It was a solid stepping stone to start a career.  The aviation training was a plus in that it gave me confidence that I could do new things.  I accomplished more than I could have imagined than when I started college at UND.  Most of this I owe to the aviation training and my relationship with John Odegard.

I have always enjoyed the statement from Leonardo da Vinci.  I have displayed it in my offices over the past 45 years.  Once you have tasted flight, you will forever walk the earth with your eyes turned skyward, for there you have been, and there you will always long to return.”   Leonardo da Vinci

 

 Image courtesy of Bob Leppke.

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Aviation History | GlobalAir.com | Lydia Wiff | UND

The Top 3 Reasons to Network

by Lydia Wiff 27. February 2017 10:31
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Over a year ago, I wrote two posts about networking at a business aviation conference.  While networking seems like a no-brainer to those already in the industry, I found that it is difficult to break into the different groups as a student (and still do as a young professional).  While some professors and advisors push networking, or provide different opportunities, I feel that many students do not network at all.  For example: four years of higher level education, and many students have very few industry contacts outside of their university.  This to me is a worrying situation as our entire industry is often based on the connections you hold with others, after they look at your resume, transcript, etc.  In today’s post, I will discuss my top three reasons to network, no matter what industry you are in.

#3: Networking is Easy

For all the introverts, extroverts, skeptics, and everyone else in-between, I promise you it is not as intimidating as it seems.  Sure, you say I have been networking several years and that it does not scare me.  I am going to tell you a secret: I am an introvert and it scares me to death every time I go to a networking event.  By nature, big crowds are not my thing and I would rather talk to a person one-on-one. 

The key to making networking easy is practice.  Simple ways of doing this are talking with new classmates each semester, getting to know your academic advisor, or other professors.  You can even extend this into your personal life by engaging with friends, family, the community, or people in your church.  Conversation is all about passing the ball back and forth.  A good way to start is to say “Hi, my name is ‘x’”.  They will usually respond with their name and what their title is, etc.  This is a good time to ask them about how they got to where they are, about their airport/company/airline, and what they enjoy about their job.  The key is to get the conversation rolling and you will find out what you have much in common.

Other ways of making networking easier is to smile, be friendly, use positive body language, and of course, PRACTICE! 

#2: Networking is (Almost) Free

One day, you are sitting in class and your professor walks in with a visitor.  This visitor works in your industry in a job that closely relates to your class and you are drawn in to their presentation about their position, the company they work for, and more.  Maybe on another occasion, you find yourself traveling and while doing your homework, someone inquires about your field of study.  Perhaps you’re at your favorite coffee shop and a fellow customer asks about your presentation.

These “happy accidents” happen at almost no cost to you as a student.  They are often the by-products of classes you are already taking, professors and peers you interact with, or as simple as a passing comment to a fellow traveler as you are on vacation.  Students are always on a budget, so it is important to realize that networking can cost you very little in the short term, but the intangible benefits are massive in the long term.

Let me give an example: Last week, I had the opportunity to attend a strategic planning session for the Great Lakes Region (GLC) Chapter of the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE).  This even was a happy accident as Grand Forks International Airport happens to be hosting their Winter Board Meeting in preparation to hosting the GLC Regional Conference.  Our professor for Advanced Airport Operations knows many members of the chapter and arranged for us to attend a one-hour session during our normal class period.  Many students carpooled and it only cost us the gas to get to the hotel.  We met at least 20 different people in management positions at airports in the GLC Region.

My point is that networking can be very affordable for students.

#1: Networking is Always a Good Idea

Now, I am probably being obvious here, but getting to know those in your industry and field is always a good idea.  It builds professional relationships that will last for years and you end up with a network that you can contact at any point. 

For instance, I am working on a portfolio for my Advanced Airport Operations class that involves me answering various questions related to my field.  In some cases, it requires a lot of research and personal interviews.  I reached out to an individual who runs a small airport in the western part of the United States and interviewed him.  This was all because I had applied for a job there and even though I did not get the position, he told me to contact whenever I needed something. 

As my professor writes in her syllabus about attending class, networking: “it’s a good idea…”

Final Thoughts…

I believe that networking is a valuable tool that we need to instill into our professional lives, but also encourage it in those around us whether a fellow coworker, a student, or a family member.  I would not be able to network as well without the encouragement (and sometimes prodding) from those around me in many areas of my life.

I attribute my network to the individuals who are willing to just to have a conversation.  And really, sometimes networking is as simple as a cup of coffee with a coworker – it is easy, cheap and always a good idea.

 

Happy Networking!

Image courtesy of Google.com

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Understanding RCAM

by Lydia Wiff 15. February 2017 09:00
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In July, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) released a draft Advisory Circular (AC) entitled Airport Field Condition Assessments and Winter Operations Safety.  Essentially, this draft AC cancels the previous AC 150/5200-30C, Airport Winter Safety and Operations from December of 2008. 

Changing ACs, regulations, etc., is no small task – this AC changes how conditions on the airfield are reported.  RCAM, or Runway Condition Assessment Matrix, is going to look a lot different than what pilots are expecting to see.  Today’s article will strive to shed some light on a new reporting system as we are now well into winter.

The Old Way

You might remember way back in your Private Pilot Ground School learning about Braking Action Reports (BARs for today’s purposes).  BARs included two correlating pieces of information:

1)      Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPS) – Pilots are expected to provide a PIREP to Air Traffic Control (ATC) if the braking action is less than “Good” (more on what consists of “Good” later).

2)      Runway Friction Mu Reports – These are often referred to as “Mu values”.  These numbers are typically shown as whole in the United Sates (U.S.) and as decimal values round to two places in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

a.      0 would be the lowest friction value, while 100 is the highest. 

b.      These values are given as an average of every third of the runway to generate a Mu value for the entire runway.  

c.       In addition to Mu values, there will be a contaminant conditions for each corresponding section of the runway (e.g., snow, slush, deicing chemicals, etc.). 

Lastly, pilots (at least in General Aviation) tend to pay attention to the words used to describe the runway conditions.  The following words have an attached meaning (AC91-79, Appendix 1):

a.      Good – the braking deceleration is normal for the effort applied and directional control is normal (Mu is 40 and above).

b.      Medium (Fair) – the braking deceleration is not as good and is more noticeable; directional control may be less (Mu is 35 to 30).

c.       Poor – braking is significantly reduced, as well as the potential for hydroplaning; directional control may be significantly reduced (Mu is 25 to 21).

d.      Nil – braking is minimal to nonexistent and directional control ability is uncertain (Mu of 20 and below).

As pilots, we most likely just were given a word or ATC telling us “Braking action is Fair”.  We did not often know the background behind what these values stand for.  Hopefully, this informs the average user a little more.  Next, I will discuss what the new system entails and how that is different for pilots.

The New Way

As of October 1st, 2016, under RCAM the braking action codes remain mostly the same with words such as “Good”, “Poor”, etc.  The biggest change is the replacement of “Fair” with “Medium” – they mean the same thing, however, the FAA decided to simply change the word.  The graphic below shows visually what the airport will use versus what a pilot will use.


As you will notice, the pilot still uses the word descriptors, while the airport is now using a numbering system that ranges from zero to six.  Zero is the “Nil” end while six is “Good”.  Zero can also be thought of as ice and six as completely clear.

It is important to note that the Runway Condition Codes (RCCs) are given for every third of the runway.  An example would be the following: 4/3/3.  Each third represents the parts of the runway: Touchdown, Midpoint, and Rollout.  These RCCs correlate with the Mu values that are measured by the friction tester, if the airport employs one. These RCCs helps a pilot to properly visualize what conditions are affecting what points of the runway.

As the descriptors of the conditions are somewhat lengthy, I will not go into detail in this post to describe each condition.  However, I would recommend that all pilots reference the FAA’s website as well as their home airport’s Notice to Airmen (NOTAMs) in addition to any field condition reports that might be issued as well.

Closing Thoughts

Hopefully this blog has shed some light on an interesting and somewhat confusing new regulation.  While pilots may see some slightly new wording in reports from airports, this rule affects many commercial airports especially when it comes to major snow events.  As this is the first winter that the new rule has been affect, it remains to be seen how airports are handling this new regulation.  Hopefully, it will be a safe winter season for all the hard-working Airport Operations personnel!

Have a comment on experiencing RCAM at your local airport?  Leave it below!

 

Images courtesy of Google.com.

 

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