All Aviation Articles By Tori Patterson

Flying with Dogs

Something that has been on my mind a lot lately is the topic of flying with dogs, and how to make it the best experience for both human and animal. I’ve flown with my dog on a number of occasions, and have often wondered how the altitude changes and flying sensations translated to my four-legged friend. I’ve done some researching into what to consider when flying with your dog, and if maybe they should be left on the ground.

I’ve found that taking your dog flying is a bucket list item for many private pilots. Being able to take your dog on flying trips with you can be very appealing, but please consider the following before heading to the airport.

Legally, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has the final say in the transportation of pets by aircraft. The general requirements say the pet must be at least 8 weeks old and have a clean bill of health. Further, if a pet is going to cross state borders it must have a rabies immunization and a valid health certificate issued by a licensed veterinarian within 30 days of travel. Additional considerations must be made if you plan to fly outside of the country, so contact the foreign office of your destination country to get more information.

The health of your dog is the next thing to consider. It is a good idea to take them to a veterinarian within 30 days of the flight, and specifically ask if there are any issues that may make it unsafe for your pet to fly. Certain medications may be an issue or extra stress from the flying experience may be too much for some dogs. Most veterinarians agree that it is completely unnecessary to sedate a dog for air travel, and careful planning and patience can make it a good experience for everyone.

Once you have determined your dog is legally and physically fit to fly, you must consider how to accommodate them in the aircraft. Avoid excessive amounts of food and water during the hours leading up to the flight, especially if you plan to have a long flight. An anxious dog may benefit from a walk or run shortly before the trip. Dogs can sense your levels of stress, so try to make the moments leading up to the flight fun and enjoyable so they do not get scared.

Just as humans need to be buckled in, dogs need to be secured in the aircraft as well. This can be done by putting them in a crate in the back seat or baggage compartment, or using securing straps on their harness. The worst feeling is worrying about your dog wandering around the back of the airplane on takeoff, so eliminate any undue stress by securing them.

The next step is to make your dog as comfortable during the flight as possible, by providing them with any combination of hearing protection, toys from home, water to drink, or stress-eliminators for their anxiety. You must remember that this is a very loud and strange experience, so they will likely be quite scared at first. We have found that our dog does a lot better on flights where she has her Mutt Muffs as ear protection. Not only does it help block out the noise of the engine, but it provides gentle pressure to her head that has a calming effect.

Be sure to check in on your dog every few minutes to make sure they are not too scared. This is where patience can go a long way, as the dog will likely need comforting the first few times they go flying.

After landing, be sure to take the dog on a walk to get out any stiffness they may feel after being stuck in the plane. This is also a good time for you to reflect on what went right and what could be improved on for the next time you travel with your furry friend. Our biggest challenge was getting dog hair in the plane, but we make an effort to vacuum and lint roll the whole aircraft afterwards.

Do you have any tips for flying with animals? What was your favorite flight with your animal? Let me know in the comments below!

Your Airplane Emergency Kit

One of the most important things for a pilot to be is PREPARED. No matter what circumstances arise during a flight, a pilot has to be ready to respond quickly and efficiently. A big part of being prepared is having the tools that you need with you at all times. In this article, I would like to look at what items every pilot should keep in an emergency kit in their aircraft. Depending on the purpose of your flight, a more robust emergency kit may be required (for example, flying in the mountains or in freezing climates) however, most fair weather flying only requires a few essentials to cover emergencies that may come up.

There are several airplane emergency kits available online, but there are some downsides to purchasing them. First, they can be very expensive. They charge a premium for the convenience of having it all prepackaged together, sometimes up to several hundreds of dollars. Another downside to purchasing a kit online is that some items will expire, and you will be forced to tear it apart the kit to find and replace the expired product.

The solution to this is to analyze the type of flying you intend to do and plan for any emergencies that could arise based on that. l am basing this list off of an individual flying a small personal aircraft, as the emergency kit for a commercial flight may look quite different. Having a personalized survival kit that contains items you know how to use could make all the difference in a critical situation.

The most major piece of equipment that you want to make sure is with you and functioning properly is the ELT (emergency locator transmitter.) Having one of these significantly increases your chances of being found and rescued if you have an unexpected landing in a secluded area. Check on your ELT to ensure it’s functioning properly and is ready when you need it.

A few other items that are worth including in your emergency kit:

Medical Supplies
This includes bandages, medical tape, ointments, medications, and any instructions for use for each product. It is equally as important to have medical items as it is to have a basic understanding of how to use it. Review instructions on each product and practice using them if needed. 

Food and Water

Depending on where you're flying, you may be secluded enough that it takes quite some time for rescue crews to reach you. In this case, it is important to have food and water rations that will last you at least a couple days. Beyond this, it is a good idea to include a water purification device in case rations run out. 

General Survival Gear

You can get a good idea of what survival gear you might need by visiting an outdoors store or searching the web for what other pilots are using. Generally, you'll want items for both sheltering yourself and signaling for help. Sheltering items include blankets, a canopy, duct tape, rope, a knife, insect repellant, and sun protection. Signaling items include flares, whistles, mirrors, and fire sticks. 

All of these can be packed into a backpack or duffle bag and easily carried with you. What’s in your airplane emergency kit? Any items you hadn’t thought about including but will now? Let me know in the comments!

The Regulated Airport

As most of my readers will know, regulatory compliance is a HUGE deal in the aviation industry. This becomes apparent as soon as flight training begins. Someone outside of aviation may imagine that learning to fly is just learning which buttons to push and levers to pull to operate an aircraft, but the reality is that a large chunk of pilot training involves learning regulations and how to comply with them. The same goes for airports. A phrase that is thrown around a lot in Airport Operations curriculum is “The Regulated Airport.” Truly, an airport is under constant scrutiny and oversight by several different regulatory agencies.

When faced with a problem in aviation you must always ask yourself, “is there a regulation that applies to this?” Next, you think “where can I find this regulation?” Finally, “Does this comply with the regulation? If not, how can I fix it?” Since moving from the flight side to the airport side, it has always been surprising to me the variety of regulatory agencies that could be involved at any one time for any one problem.

Today I would like to provide an overview of some of the major regulations that airports must comply with, as both an exercise for myself and hopefully an interesting read for those outside of the aviation industry. This is by no means an exhaustive list, but will look at some of the regulations that come up most frequently.

Regulated Airport

Part 139
For the day to day operations of an airport with commercial service, the Federal Aviation Administration’s 14 CFR Part 139 is the governing regulation. This includes instruction on employee training, record keeping, wildlife management, airfield inspections, Airport Emergency Plans, and hundreds of other topics relating to airport operations. The most interesting thing about Part 139 is that an airport looking to earn certification writes their own Airport Certification Manual (ACM) outlining how they will comply with the different sections of Part 139, and it is signed and approved by an FAA inspector. The airport's ACM then becomes the regulatory document. 

Part 1542
The Department of Homeland Security has issued Transport Security Regulations (TSRs) that require airports to maintain certain security measures. This includes background checks on individuals that have access to secure areas, badging and access control, and a variety of other regulations regarding the security of airport property. One of the major security regulations that airports with commercial service must comply with is Title 49 CFR Part 1542. Similar to Part 139 and the ACM, airports write their own Airport Security Plan (ASP) which is then approved and becomes their unique regulating document. 

Grant Assurances
Any airport that accepts federal funding for a project is subject to the Grant Assurances for up to 20 years, depending on the lifetime of the project. These sets of regulations can also apply to a General Aviation airport that does not have to comply with Part 139, if they accept money from the Federal Government. Grant Assurances are obligations for the airport to keep itself in the best possible condition and properly operated. There are a total of 39 Grant Assurances, and they cover topics such as Economic Nondiscrimination, Compatible Land Use, and Planning Projects. 

Environmental Regulations
There are several environmental regulations that airports must comply with, both with the FAA and the EPA. The environmental issues that the FAA governs mostly relate to Airport Noise. For example, 14 CFR Part 150 “Airport Noise Compatibility Planning” and 14 CFR Part 161 “Airport Noise and Access Restrictions.” Airplane Noise has been a hot topic since well before the Jet Age, and the FAA has precise rules for how airports plan for and handle it. 

Airports also handle a variety of hazardous and toxic materials, so it is vital that proper quarantine and drainage protocols are in place to protect the local water supply. Many airports work closely with the Environmental Protection Agency to identify and avoid possible water pollution. 

Financial Regulations
Airports are subject to a variety of financial regulations, determining what they charge and how they use their funds. This is especially important when they accept Federal funding, and should be taken very seriously. 

Self-Implemented Regulations
In addition to all of the external regulations that airports must comply with, airports make their own internal rules as well. These rules are called Minimum Standards, and are required under Grant Assurance 19, Operations and Maintenance. Minimum Standards are used so that the relationship and expectations between the airport operator and airport users are clear and understood. 

This concludes my overview of some of the regulations that commercial airports must be aware of and comply with in their daily operations. Hopefully you learned something or had a nice refresher. Let me know in the comments below if you've had experience with any of these! 

Looking for Airport and FBO information?  Try Globalair.com's Airport Resource Center (ARC).  Packed with all the United States Airports Aeronautical information from the FAA and updated ever 56 days and over 3,200 FBO's and fuel prices.

 

 

5 Surprising New Uses for Drones

Unmanned Arial Systems, or "drones," have been steadily increasing in popularity for years now. As engineers are able to design smaller drones with better cameras, sensors, and features at lower prices, it is only natural that new applications for drones are being thought of every day. As we begin the New Year I would like to take a look at some of the upcoming applications for drones that may surprise you in their genius or weirdness. 2019 might be the Year of the Drone! 

This article was inspired in part by research I did last summer over the current usage of drones in state Departments of Transportation. There are dozens of state DOTs that use drones for bridge inspections, traffic monitoring, and construction progress documentation. Over the course of this research, I also discovered this incredible website that hosts a database of U.S. public safety agencies that own and use drones. current as of May 2018, this database estimates that at least 910 state and local police, sheriff, fire, and emergency services agencies in the U.S. have acquired drones. They also estimate an 82% increase in the number of public safety agencies that own drones from the previous year. 

Interesting drone facts aside, let's get on to the list of my top 5 surprising new uses for drones! 

1. Car Accident/Crime Scene Documentation

An interesting application that the North Carolina Department of Transportation has for their drones is documenting car crashes and crime scenes. It is particularly useful for car accidents, as it severely cuts down on the time required to record pictures and evidence so that the Highway Patrol can clear the accident and reopen roads quicker. Authorities in Asheville simulated a head-on collision and then used their drone with a laser scanner to take pictures of the scene and create a 3D model. 

Work that usually takes state troopers about two hours to complete took only 25 minutes with a drone. They are then able to take the data and recreate the accident to better understand what happened. Now that's innovation! 

2. Food Delivery 

This application still has a lot of logistical kinks to work out, but I would not be surprised if food delivery via drones becomes a popular venture in the next few years. The novelty of the experience of having a drone delivery your meal will attract countless customers. Transportation giant Uber is already jumping on this idea, sharing their vision to have a fleet of food delivery drones by the year 2021. This one makes me stop and think, is life getting too fast-paced? Can we not wait the typical 30 minutes for food delivery via automobile? We will have to see how this one plays out! 

3. Fishing Aid

In what is perhaps one of the most creative fishing technologies I've ever seen, the company AguaDrone has created a drone that can not only detect fish with their wireless sonar pod, but also carry bait to the fish to catch it. The waterproof design can land and take off from fresh or saltwater and features a detachable camera to record all of your fishing adventures. I imagine this would be particularly useful for fishing in crowded areas, where you could reach further than any other lines. 

The drone and accessories currently only say "coming soon" on the websites's shopping page, but hopefully this genius invention will be manufactured and sold soon to fishers everywhere. 

4. For Hospice Patients

This one tugged at my heartstrings when I heard about it. A small company in Ohio is using their drones to bring happiness and comfort to those in their final days of life. The Flight To Remember Foundation flies drones to capture videos of meaningful places so that hospice patients can see them for one last time. These can be shared via live stream or video complication for repeated viewing. I can only imagine how special this would be for a loved one. According to their website they are currently looking for more volunteer drone pilots, so that is a cause worth checking out! 

5. Help with Cooking 

This one is more satirical in nature than the others, but check out that video! Someone found a great way to use their drone for several common cooking tasks. The blades peed the potatoes with such ease, and you won't even have to leave your kitchen to safely fry your turkey! 

All jokes aside, I hope this article has helped you to see the possibilities of drones in a new way. What is your favorite drone application? Have you thought of one that doesn't exist yet? Let me know in the comments below! 

Thoughts on Crew Resource Management (CRM)

Crew Resource Management (CRM) is defined by the Federal Aviation Administration as, "the effective use of all available resources: human resources, hardware, and information." The history of CRM comes from NASA research that took place in the late 1970s. NASA focused its research solely on the human error element involved in aircraft accidents with multiple crews. During this time of research, much of the focus of CRM was on the pilot/copilot relationship. It was discovered that select airline captains thought very little of their first officers. In turn, first officers felt that they could not challenge their captain when they didn’t agree with his or her actions. They felt that it was disrespectful to challenge them as captains were the boss in the cockpit. The purpose of the research at that time was to "gain an environment of equal respect, teamwork and cooperation to safely accomplish the mission of the flight." The most recent CRM model has evolved into "teaching pilots risk management strategies, focusing on workload management, recognizing hazardous attitudes or patterns, maintaining situational awareness, and communicating effectively to operate efficiently and safely in all aspects of flight." CRM is an important aspect to any flight training department and is critical for an airline pilot’s career.

CRM covers many different concepts including decision-making and risk management. The decision-making side of CRM covers pilots that are faced with an in-flight decision. Pilots are trained to use the knowledge and technology they have available to them when they are faced to make a decision during flight. CRM includes not only pilots but other crew members, flight attendants, ATC, weather reports, and maintenance workers. Pilots can utilize these people and tools to help them make their in-flight decision. Risk management involves preventing risks and how to manage them appropriately if they do arise. Risks include not only environmental such as weather or operational policies but pilot’s personal risks. Pilots can have personal risks such as fatigue, illness or stress that they are aware of but not always tell their crew members about. Factors such as aircraft weight and runway conditions can also influence risks. Two flight cases below highlight the importance of CRM and why proper training is crucial before the flight crew steps in the cockpit.

Korean Air Cargo Flight 8509 is a perfect case study into what tragedies can happen when there is a breakdown of CRM. The Boeing 747 was flown by a crew of 4 out of London Stansted Airport on December 22, 1999. Maintenance personnel warned the Flight Engineer that the captain’s Attitude Director Indicator (ADI, or artificial horizon) was unreliable during a roll before they boarded the aircraft. It was dark outside at the time of takeoff, so the captain was flying entirely by instruments. The captain began a sharp left turn after takeoff, which was not reflected on his inoperable ADI. The CRM breakdown in this instance was that the co-pilot’s ADI was functioning normally but he remained silent as to not challenge the captain. The Flight Engineer began yelling "Bank!" repeatedly, and an alarm rang out warning of the error, but the pilot continued his sharp turn until the left wing dragged the ground and the plane smacked the ground at high speed and 90 degrees of left bank. All 4 crew onboard perished in the cash.

Southwest Airlines Flight 1248 is another example of where CRM training is crucial. On December 8, 2005 a Boeing 737-7H4 ran off the departure end of runway 31 center just after landing at Chicago Midway Airport. The aircraft rolled through the blast pad fencing and the airport’s perimeter fence where it finally came to a stop after striking a vehicle, which killed a child that was in the vehicle. The cause of the accident was the pilots’ failure to use available reverse thrust in a timely manner to safely slow or stop the airplane after landing. This failure occurred because the pilots’ first experience and lack of familiarity with the airplane’s autobrake system distracted them from thrust reverser during the challenging landing. This case shows that not only were the pilots at fault for the accident but Southwest Airlines as a company. The company failed to train the pilots and assure that they were clear on the operating procedures for the aircraft they were flying.

Between 60-80% of aviation accidents are caused by human error, and a large portion of that are specifically caused by poor Crew Resource Management. Millions of dollars have been invested into CRM training at airlines, flight schools, and other businesses that operate aircraft. Continual CRM training that focuses on teaching pilots and aircraft crew error avoidance, early detection of errors, and minimizing consequences resulting from CRM errors generally has a positive outcome and desired behavioral change. However, it can be difficult to evaluate the impact of CRM training as it is hard to quantify the concept of accidents avoided. Thus, it was determined that more research into the long-term effects of CRM training needs to be conducted in the coming years.

Companies are wanting to dig deeper into how they can better equip and train their employees to use CRM tactics. The FAA has an Advisor Circular (AC) published specifically for crew resource management training. In addition to the certain essential that are universal to CRM, the Advisory Circular also lists effective CRM characteristics which include: CRM is a comprehensive system of applying human factors concepts to improve crew performance, CRM embraces all operational personnel, CRM can be blended in all forms of aircrew training, CRM concentrates on crewmembers’ attitudes and behaviors and their impact on safety, CRM uses the crew as a unit of training, CRM is training that requires the active participation of all crewmembers. It provides an opportunity for individuals and crews to examine their own behavior, and to make decisions on how to improve cockpit teamwork. The number one goal in aviation is safety. Where CRM characteristics are compromised or left out, there’s room for error to slip in which can lead to incidents or accidents that could cause fatalities. Companies in the aviation industry need to ensure that they are taking all of the right steps in training their crews before they are put on the aircraft with souls on board.

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