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6 Ways the Garmin Autoland Determines the Most Suitable Airport

Photo courtesy of Elliot Jets

The Garmin G3000 Autoland System (HomeSafe) is the first of its kind to receive certification from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). HomeSafe selects an airport to autonomously land at in an emergency. The system ensures stable flight while navigating, descending, and landing at the most suitable airport. At a starting price of $85,000 USD, this system can be installed in the 2020 Daher TBM 940, Piper M600 MLS, and Cirrus Vision Jet.  Several 2019 models can be retrofitted with the system. Garmin's intentions are to expand the autoland system into other airplanes that have a G3000, such as the Honda HA-420, Embraer Phenom 100 and 300, Curtis Vision SF50, and the Cessna Citation CJ3+. The autoland system is only certified in the G3000. However, Garmin's goal is to expand autonomous flight into more modes of aviation, according to Garmin's Executive Vice President, Phil Straub. 

 

The autoland system is activated through a button in the cockpit. The system can automatically activate if it renders the pilot unable to fly. HomeSafe is designed to only be activated in an emergency, such as an incapacitated pilot. The system will then pick the most suitable airport to autonomously land at. The factors that determine which airport the airplane selects are listed below.

 

1. Airport is Within 200 NM

HomeSafe system will pick an airport in a 200 NM radius from where the the autoland system was enabled.

 

2. Fuel Reserves

HomeSafe will determine if the airplane has the range to reach a specific airport. A plane may not have the fuel reserve to reach an airport that is within the 200 NM radius, thus fuel range is used to consider a closer airport.

 

3. GPS Approach

Contrary to CAT III ILS approaches, HomeSafe is the first certified system that can autoland on a GPS approach. The airport chosen by the system must be equipped with a suitable GPS approach.

 

4. Weather

The G3000 will select an airport based on the weather and winds. The GPS will avoid adverse weather once the emergency autloand system is enacted.

 

5. Runway Length

The runway used for the approach must be at least 4,500 feet long for most airplanes. However, the exact runway length is dependent upon the aircraft being used. For example, the Cirrus VisionJet requires a runway of 5,836 feet or loner.

 

6. Terrain Considerations

When choosing an airport to land at, the GPS will consider the terrain of a given airport and its surrounding area.

 

There are approximately 9,000 airports where HomeSafe can land autonomously at. In an emergency, the system picks the most suitable airport based on distance, fuel range, instrument approaches, weather, runway length, and terrain. Only time will tell if more airplanes will be equipped with this technology and if more airports will accommodate to the requirements needed for HomeSafe landings.

The 5 Most Expensive Private Jets on the Market in 2020

While multiple modes of transportation are available in the United States, business aviation ranks among the most important for companies and the affluent alike. The demand for private jets stems not only from the comfortability provided by the aircraft but also from its ability to help reach a variety of markets. Seen as more of a business tool than simply an aircraft, private jets offer a space that can easily be utilized as an office, conference room, or even a bedroom dependent on the user's needs.

Private aviation also represents one of the most luxurious modes of transportation available. Those who can afford the cost of owning and operating a jet see it as more than just an expensive aircraft, they see it as a portrayal of their social status.

From athletes to movie stars, A-list celebrities desire an A-list aircraft to travel in. The cost of this class of aircraft can range from tens of millions to hundreds of millions of dollars. And no, that does not include the cost of operating the jet.

Of course, the amenities of aircraft held to such a high standard come with a hefty price tag. Here are five of the most expensive private jets on the market.

 

 

Gulfstream G650ER  - $71 million


Courtesy of Gulfstream Aerospace

 

 

The Gulfstream G650ER boasts a price tag of $71 million. With a range of more than 7,500 nm and a striking interior made from luxurious leathers, elegant wooden veneers, and handcrafted stonework, its no surprise that Jeff Bezos, founder of Amazon, would make the G650ER his private jet of choice.

Currently, the G650ER holds the record for the farthest fastest flight in business aviation history, allowing it to set new standards for comfort, functionality, and safety. It is one of the fastest civilian aircraft in the world at its highest speed of 607 miles per hour.

The spacious cabin is also designed to be the quietest in business aviation. Sixteen panoramic oval windows fill the cabin with natural light and stunning views of the world below.

Elon Musk is a tech giant with a net worth of $41.1 billion as of 2020. Musk lives in a world surrounded by advanced technology, and he expects his G650ER to be the same. On the inside, this private just is equipped with advanced fly-by-wire technology and streamlined displays of the PlaneView II flight deck to increase safety and reduce pilot workload. The cabin is even entirely customizable and can be controlled using a smartphone app.

 

Bombardier Global 7500 - $72 million


Courtesy of Bombardier

 

The Global 7500 is one of the world’s largest and longest-range business jets on the market. Known for its luxurious interior, the Global 7500 is easily worth its price tag of $72 million.

With an industry-leading 7,700 nm range, a top speed of Mach 0.925, and exceptional short-field performance, the 7500 is practically unrivaled. If the allure of the words “ultimate long-range private jet” don’t entice you, then maybe the full dining table, luxury window seating, and private bedroom will.

Niki Lauda, a Formula 1 world champion, was one of the first to receive the Global 7500. Though a loyal client of Bombardier for many years, Lauda particularly liked the Global 7500 due to its elegant design and abundance of natural light. This jet can be hard to find, with few on the market today.

Unlike any other business jet on the market, the Global 7500 features The Nuage seats, the first new seat architecture in business aviation in almost 30 years. Designed with the intent to bring the comfort of luxury home seating into the cabin, the seat offers three key features unavailable on any other seat in business aviation: deep recline, floating base, tilting headrest.

Bombardier Pũr Air is offered on the Global 7500 with an advanced HEPA filter that captures up to 99.99% of allergens, bacteria, and viruses while completely replacing the cabin air with fresh air in as little as 90 seconds. Available exclusively on Global aircraft, Bombardier Pũr Air delivers cleaner air with better humidity and quicker heating and cooling than 100% fresh air only systems.

Bombardier’s Global 7500 has become the first in business aviation to receive an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) from the International EPD System based in Sweden. The EPD allows for full environmental transparency about the Global 7500, such as CO2 emissions, noise, water consumption, and other environmental impact indicators. Bombardier believes this aircraft will help cut down on the environmental impact of aviation, and they’re not afraid to prove it.

 

Dassault Falcon 8X - $59 million


Courtesy of Dassault

 

The Dassault Falcon 8X is an amazingly fast aircraft, capable of flying at a speed of 0.90 Mach to a distance of 6,450 nm without refueling. Improved wing design and new powerplant make this business jet 35% more economical than any other ultra-long-haul aircraft on the market. The Falcon 8X has a suggested retail price of $59 million.

While the Falcon 8X has a lower cost than the other four aircraft on the list, there are many unique amenities on this private jet that make it one of the most expensive on the market. For instance, its unique three-engine scheme helps to shorten transoceanic routes. The 8X gets you where you are going faster.

Bill Gates, the co-founder of Microsoft, is no stranger to the world of private jets. In fact, he owns at least 3 private jets as of today. Gates just had to get his hands on the Falcon 7X, the predecessor to the 8X due to Dassault’s reputation for having the most advanced jets on the market. He’ll undoubtedly be looking for an upgrade to the 8X before long.

Offering the longest cabin in the Falcon family, the Falcon 8X will become your personal penthouse at an altitude of 41,000 ft. More than 30 stunning cabin layout options are available, each including seating areas, kitchens, crew compartments, and showers.

The latest technology is at your fingertips in the Falcon 8X with the ability to control its functionality from anywhere in the cabin through your Apple device. You can even call up a virtual moving map of any area around you by simply pointing your iPad in the desired direction.

 

Boeing Business Jet MAX 8 - $85 million


Courtesy of Boeing

 

The BBJ (Boeing Business Jet) MAX 8 is a state-of-the-art, $85 million airliner turned private jet. The interior is an astounding 1,025 square feet. That means space for you and 49 of your closest friends. The sky is the limit on the different configurations, including a master suite with a California King bed, a walk-in closet, and a master bath with a double-size shower and heated marble floors.

The BBJ MAX 8 has a range of 6,640nm and can cruise at an airspeed of 449 kn (832 km/h). Despite being larger and more capable than previous models of BBJ aircraft, the BBJ MAX has a 13% lower fuel burn and lower emissions, thanks to its CFM LEAP-1B engines and advanced winglets.

An interior cabin concept presented by Boeing for the BBJ MAX featured a ‘spaceship sleek’ design, including starlight detailing on the cabin ceiling. With the generous cabin space offered by this business jet, it allows you to create an office or home in the sky.

It's understandable why Steven Spielberg, famed film director, and producer, would choose the BBJ as his personal aircraft. With a net worth of $3.6 billion, he could easily own multiple of these private jets. However, he chooses to share ownership with fellow film producer and good friend Jeffrey Katzenberg.

While capable of offering luxurious seating for 50 people, the majority of clients opt to accommodate less. Instead, they take advantage of the space and implement board rooms, dining rooms, or master suites to get much-needed rest.

Boeing also offers a special panoramic window as an option on the BBJ MAX 8. Measuring 4.5 feet by 1.5 feet, the window allows a generous amount of natural light into the cabin, while at the same time offering beautiful views of the ground below.

 

Airbus ACJ320neo - $95 million


Courtesy of Airbus

 

Coming in at an astounding base price of $95 million, the ACJ320neo changed the game for airlines and is now making waves in the private jet industry. This private jet delivered lower operating costs and increased efficiency than previous Airbus A320 models. New engines and aerodynamically friendly sharklet wingtips aid in reducing fuel consumption and providing additional range.

Considering it has the widest and tallest cabin in the industry at 3 times the space of a large traditional jet, it only makes sense that the elite of the elite would seek out this aircraft for business use.

With private jet owners spending many hours on the aircraft, they must find time to relax during the flight. Airbus offers the Melody Cabin, focusing on providing an attractive environment that is both quieter and better adapted to providing sound and vision in a “home cinema” setting.

What truly sets the ACJ320neo apart from the commercial model is right within the name, with “Neo” being an acronym for new engine option. These new engine options include the Pratt & Whitney PW1100G-JM and the CFM International LEAP-1A.

The ACJ320neo’s head of state, VIP interior can seat 25 passengers and 6 crew with an approximate range of 6,000nm, connecting city pairs such as London and Beijing as well as Moscow and Los Angeles.

 

These private jets were created with the elite in mind. Across the world, they represent wealth and power to socialites and business owners alike. Functioning as more than just a mode of transportation, these aircraft act as apartments, offices, entertainment spaces, and more for the wealthy. Needless to say, it’s expensive to be rich.

Popular Topics on the Multi Engine Oral Exam

Whether you're going for a multi add-on to a previous certificate or doing a "fresh" multi certificate so to speak, you'll need to know these popular topics that almost every examiner will ask. They're the most important factors about multi flying and knowing them also keeps you safe.

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a. What's the difference between a single engine and multi engine plane? Well the most obvious answer here is one has one engine and the other has 2 or more. Tell that to your DPE and see if you can get a laugh out of them (and then follow with this elaboration). On a single engine plane when you lose an engine, you can no longer climb. You pitch for airspeed, find a spot to land, run through your checklist to diagnose the problem and then try to restart the engine. The danger here is stalling if you lose too much airspeed. In multi engine planes, the danger is the yaw that becomes uncontrollable until it rolls the plane over. You very quickly have to bring pitch to Vyse, manage your power settings, clean up any drag (like landing gear and flaps) and then the famous identify, verify and feather. These are life saving procedures that prevent you from becoming an accident statistic. You're preventing the yaw and stopping the plane from going below Vmc.

b. Describe Vmc. The definition for Vmc is that it is "the minimum control speed with the critical engine inoperative" and is marked by a red line on most airspeed indicators. You can find this on page 12-2 of the Airplane Flying Handbook along with all other V speed definitions. This goes back to what I previously wrote, that if you get below this speed you likely won't be able to recover from the aircraft yaw in the event of an engine loss. This also relates to Vsse, the safe intentional OEI speed. This is on the same page as Vmc in the AFH where it states it's the "minimum speed to intentionally render the critical engine inoperative." So when an MEI is demonstrating engine loss during flight, they don't go below this speed. It gives the pilot a safe margin to keep away from going below Vmc during the demonstration. 

c. How is Vmc determined? This is something that's set by the manufacturer. To memorize how, use the COMBATS acronym.

Critical engine inoperative

Operating engine full power

Max takeoff weight

Bank into the operating engine no more than 5 degrees

Aft CG

Takeoff configuration (gear and flaps down)

Standard day: standard temp and standard pressure

To add onto this, WHY does the manufacturer do this? All of these conditions are set for the worst scenario. The critical engine is obviously the worst to lose because of airplane controllability, and with full power on the good engine the airplane is now hardest to control. Max takeoff weight and an aft CG can make the airplane unstable and hardest to recover from. As for the takeoff configuration, with gear and flaps down this exhibits the most drag. 

d. Know your plane. By this I mean know what type engines you have (horsepower, which one is a critical engine if there is one and why), propellers, max takeoff and landing weights, service/absolute ceilings etc. When you go through these items in the operating handbook, pretend you're teaching it to someone else. This will help you understand it better and point out weak spots that you wouldn't be able to explain to a DPE. For example, the multi plane I fly has constant speed, hydraulically actuated, full feathering props. When an engine is lost, I'm still able to feather the plane without oil pressure (which keeps the prop at a low pitch) from the propellor governor. Without oil pressure the propellers go back to feathered position, and once oil pressure is lost this is where dry nitrogen kicks into place. Here's the best photo I could find to help illustrate the propeller system: 

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If you're like me and taking a multi check ride soon, then study study study ALL of this and be ready to explain it to a DPE! Stay calm, ask questions to clarify anything you don't understand, and most of all believe in yourself.

After your check ride if you're in the market to buy a multi engine, then you know where to go! Head over to our main page on Globalair.com and click the "aircraft for sale" drop down arrow and start searching. 

Any other tips you'd like to add on from your check ride experience? Comment below!

 

How to Manually Extend Your Gear in an Emergency

Complex airplanes can be a large variety of different types of planes. Federal Aviation Regulations in the Airplane Flying Handbook define a complex aircraft to be "an airplane that has a retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller." So, this can be different types of jets and especially general aviation planes.

Most commonly, we see general aviation planes such as a Piper Cherokee featured here on the GlobalAir.com Aircraft for Sale area. Planes like these are usually the roots of most pilots when they were working towards a complex endorsement. Nonetheless, every pilot should be ready for a gear extension failure regardless of the plane they're flying. 

The first step to realizing you've had a gear extension failure is after vocalizing gear in transition, checking to see that the gear is fully down. There will be an absence of a light on the indicator (in most cases it's green). Some planes may have 3 green lights for each wheel, and some may just have one. Regardless, if any of the required indicator lights are absent, you've got an issue.

Here, you want to do a quick check to see if it's the lightbulb that's the issue and not the gear itself. Ensure your master and alternator switches are on, and if able pull the outer cover of the light off to see the lightbulb. You can easily touch it or lightly twist it and if it comes on, then it's the lightbulb that's malfunctioning. Always check your circuit breakers as well. If the gear circuit is out, push it back in one time. If the light comes on, again it's an electrical issue there and not the gear. However, if the circuit pops back out again leave it alone. It's popping out for a reason, so don't push it in again and especially don't hold it in. 

If you've ran through these first steps and have diagnosed it's not the landing gear position indicators that are out, now it's time for a manual gear extension. Let ATC know (if you're talking to them) what's going on and what you're about to do, and if you're coming in to land (which you most likely are) that you'll be going ahead with a go around. It doesn't matter if you get the gear down safely in time for touchdown, take another lap in the pattern. This reverts back to safe decision making.

Next, follow your emergency checklist according to your POH here to start emergency gear extension. Check airspeed is below what's published-because the gear may not be able to drop down without hydraulic power if you're too fast-and hit the landing gear selector down. Now grab your emergency gear extension lever and drop it down. Here you should feel the gear drop down, as you'll feel the drag and airspeed will slow.

You're not done yet. Now, you have to make sure the gear is locked in place. The last thing you'd want is to have followed a good emergency gear extension checklist, then touchdown and have a wheel collapse. You can ensure this by checking your landing gear lights are all lighted. 

But what if you have an electrical problem (reverting back to earlier) and can't see a light, or it still isn't lighted? That means you have to "wiggle the plane" so to speak and push the gear into place. Yaw the aircraft with rudder to both sides, and this should push the sides into locking. The nosewheel should have locked into place given that you let the gear down below airspeed. 

Now, you're ready to land. Again, let ATC now know what is going on. On a VFR day at a controlled airport, tower can even help you out by spotting you and letting you know if they see all your gear is down. This also goes at an uncontrolled field if someone else is in the vicinity and talking on the CTAF. Think of out of the box ideas like this to help you, it's all about managing the resources available and making safety a priority. 

In the worst case scenario that gear still isn't down, go then to your gear up landing checklist. If you haven't already, now it's time to officially declare an emergency.

Now matter what follow your checklists, use your available resources, revert back to your training, and most of all stay calm. Panicking is the worst thing to do in any emergency because you can't think straight and can now easily stray away from your procedures. 

Have any stories about doing a manual gear extension or any emergency scenario stories in general? Comment below and stay tuned for more posts!

Tips For Renting Your Aircraft

If you own an aircraft and are not utilizing it as much as you would like or if you would like to try and recover some of the cost of owning the aircraft, you may have thought about renting your aircraft to other pilots. As a practical matter, that makes some sense. But before you actually rent your aircraft to another pilot, here are a few things you should consider.

Aircraft Owners May Rent Their Aircraft To Third Parties

Tips for Renting your aircraftIt is important to understand that the FAA does not prohibit aircraft owners from renting their aircraft. In fact, the regulations specifically contemplate rental arrangements. So, renting your aircraft is permitted, provided that you comply with applicable regulations. The FAA provides guidance on what is and isn't a permissible rental arrangement in Advisory Circular 91-37B Truth in Leasing (although truth in leasing requirements only apply to large civil aircraft, the general lease concepts discussed in the AC apply to leasing arrangements for all aircraft).

Make Sure Your Insurance Permits Aircraft Rental

Most aircraft insurance policies will extend coverage to other pilots who fly your aircraft provided that the pilots are either expressly identified in your policy or if they have the necessary experience/qualifications to meet the "open pilot" clause of the policy. However, if you are going to charge the pilot for use of your aircraft, you need to confirm that your policy allows you to rent or lease your aircraft to a third-party. Most aircraft policies issued to owners for personal/business flying do allow aircraft leasing, but it is important to confirm this with your insurance underwriter.

Also, rather than paying to obtain their own insurance policy or renter's insurance to cover their use of your aircraft, most renter pilots will want to be named as an additional insured under your policy as this can oftentimes be done at no cost to you or the renter pilot. In that case, renters will typically ask for a certificate of insurance that reflects not only that they are added to your policy, but that they are covered for their operation and use of their aircraft. This is important because it doesn't do the renter pilot any good if he or she is added to the owner's policy but only covered for the owner's operation of the aircraft, rather than his or her own use.

Renting Your Aircraft Can Trigger Tax Consequences

In most states, when an aircraft owner rents an aircraft to a third-party the owner is required to collect and remit sales tax on the rent paid by the third-party for the aircraft. If you are in one of those states, in order to rent your aircraft you will need to obtain a sales tax number so you can collect and remit sales tax to the taxing authority. This is the aircraft owner's obligation and the taxing authority will hold the aircraft owner responsible for any sales tax the taxing authority believes the aircraft owner should have collected and remitted, regardless of whether the renter pilot actually paid the sales tax to the aircraft owner.

Also, when you rent your aircraft many taxing authorities view that activity as commercial activity which then means your aircraft could be subject to assessment of personal property tax on the value of the aircraft, or some portion of the value based upon the pro-rata rental versus personal use of the aircraft. Although not all states assess personal property tax on aircraft, if you are in a state that does you will want to determine your potential property tax exposure before you decide to rent your aircraft.

Conclusion

Although you will also have other things to consider as you decide whether to rent your aircraft to other pilots, these three issues should be near the top of your list. And if you understand and address these issues up front that will help ensure a successful aircraft rental experience for both you, the aircraft owner, and your renter pilot.

Greg can be reached at:

Greg Reigel
Shackelford, Bowen, McKinley & Norton, LLP
9201 N. Central Expressway, 4th Floor, Dallas, Texas 75231
Direct: (214) 780-1482 - Fax: (214) 780-1401
E-mail:  greigel@shackelford.law
Website:  www.shackelford.law

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