"I think we need another pilot"
"I think an A&P would be helpful in maintaining our aircraft availability."
I hear this a lot from aviation managers, but when pressed for the data by their boss, it may not be ready to hand over. A really savvy manager knows this: intuition is wrong more that it is right. You need the data to back up your gut feel! In fact, when your gut feel turns out correct, it is usually based on a well reasoned approach from your personal experiences and education. To put it another way:
You Can't Manage What You Don't Measure
When it comes to justifying additional personnel, you must have the data to support your position. Personal costs can be a business' highest single cost. One place to start is the NBAA Management Guide. It has the general approach to calculating now many pilots your flight operation needs. It involves how frequently the aircraft flies, and how much standby and duty time is needed to meet a schedule. At one extreme is the Emergency Medical Services operation which must have crew available 24/7. At the other extreme was a pair of helicopter pilots whose job was to fly the prince from his home on the coast to his yacht. They were scheduled weeks ahead of time and much of their "duty" time was sitting on the yacht at sea! The rule of thumb of three pilots per aircraft is a starting point. The NBAA Management Guide takes you down the path.
Another great reference is the NBAA Benchmark and Compensation Survey. It contains member information on not only salaries, but also utilization and days/hours worked by aviation department job titles. A lot of times just showing that you are working more hours than 95% of your peers is validation enough for another employee.
Adding an extra pilot takes a bit more calculation. An on-demand pilot such as a charter pilot may not be able to fly a lot of hours. The scheduled pilot, like for an airline, can get a lot more flying hours. You need to look at the schedule variability and duty days, plus non-flying responsibilities. Also take into account the availability of part-time or contract pilots. One thing that is important in your calculation for an extra pilot involves what the current pilots' duty time is like. Here are a few things to look at:
- Total duty days
- Total duty hours
- Days away from home for flying
- Non-flying duties and hours required
- Days away for training, vacation, sick leave, etc.
For maintenance personnel, the list of considerations center around they aircraft types and and maintenance philosophy. Items to consider include:
- Aircraft trip profiles - on the road a week at a time or back every night?
- Aircraft utilization, and whether it is driven by calendar limits or hourly limits
- How close are you to overhaul and repair facilities? Is there support on the field?
- How old is the aircraft? Aircraft require more maintenance as they age.
- Do you perform maintenance while the aircraft is not being scheduled for flights? i.e. Do you fly by day and maintain by night (or weekend)?
General considerations for both need to look at what the future demand for flights is. Are you anticipating increased flying activity? Are you unable to meet the current demand for trips? Are you having to turn down trip requests on a more frequent basis? Consider a survey of your aircraft users to ask if they have more demand and to see if there is a requirement for the use of more than a single aircraft at one time. The users of your aircraft will learn what your limitations are and will adjust their schedule. Ask them if they need to fly more but cannot. You need to be tracking this. If you can quantify that the unmet demand is based on lack of available personnel (or needing to overwork people) , then your justification for the added personnel is complete.
Most organizations like to stay lean. But that does not mean working your people to bare bones on a regular basis. Aviation has a very strong safety component that extends beyond the cockpit to anyone who has a physical impact on the aircraft. Even so, adding additional personnel takes solid data.